⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐ 1.1 Explain The Importance Of Holistic Development In Children

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1.1 Explain The Importance Of Holistic Development In Children



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Because each condition only consisted of 4 training stimuli, these were repeated 3 times in random order within each block. Stimuli within the block from a single condition were randomized, and each stimulus was presented for 1 s with 0. Each run contained the same blocks reflecting all 8 conditions, but in a different order for each run. The entire imaging session took approximately 20 min. Images were presented via SuperLab Pro 4. All stimuli were then back-displayed by a Mitsubishi XL30 projector onto a screen that participants viewed through a mirror in the bore of the MRI scanner.

The resulting voxel size was 3. Individual functional volumes were co-registered to anatomical volumes with an intensity-matching, rigid-body transformation algorithm. High-resolution T1-weighted anatomical volumes were acquired prior to functional imaging using a 3D Turbo-flash acquisition resolution: 1. A Regions-of-interest ROI analysis was performed using anatomical localization of the anterior and posterior fusiform gyri as reported previously [ 31 ], in each individual brain.

The fusiform gyrus is bounded by the lateral occipital sulcus laterally, by the collateral sulcus medially, and by the anterior and posterior collateral sulci rostrally and caudally [ 19 ]. The distance between the lateral occipital sulcus and the collateral sulcus was on average 10 mm—this provided the extent of the ROI in the X dimension. In the Z dimension, our ROIs began on the ventral surface of the temporal lobe and extended 10 mm dorsally.

In the Y dimension, we acquired a 20 mm distance from the anterior to the posterior collateral sulcus, then split this region into two equal segments, 10 mm each. The data from these regions was then extracted from each individual, and peak activation within each region was used as a data point in subsequent analyses. We also calculated average activation for each condition, but these data are not reported here because the results were consistent with the peak-based analyses. In addition to the ROI analysis, we also performed whole-brain contrasts within each individual and across the combined group. The GLM analysis allows for the correlation of predictor variables or functions with the recorded activation data criterion variables across scans.

The predictor functions were based on the blocked stimulus presentation paradigm of the particular run being analyzed and represent an estimate of the predicted hemodynamic response during that run. Any functional data that exceeded 5 mm of motion on any axis were excluded from the analyses. Out of volumes collected, only 10 were omitted due to movement. Exclusion of these data does not significantly alter the power of the present analyses. To further limit the effects of movement in the data, we used 3 axes motion parameters as regressors in the General Lineal Model applied to the data—these were not included in the analyses.

Data were left in native space for individual contrasts, and were also transformed into a common stereotactic space e. The statistical significance of clusters in a given contrast was first assessed using a random-effects between-groups ANCOVA model. The Cluster-Level Statistical Threshold Estimator plugin estimated a cluster-size threshold of six 3 mm 3 voxels. Only clusters that exceeded this threshold were considered for interpretation.

Participant performance on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, Bader Reading and Language Inventory [ 5 ], and the Beery—Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual—motor Integration [ 7 ] was all within the typical range for all children tested and there were no outliers detected in any of our measures by ESD method see Table 1 for scores. Note that these tests were administered only to ensure that our participants were performing within a normal range and were not included for data analyses. In addition, all children were able to identify the shapes that were used during scanning. Two types of analyses were performed. The first, a region-of-interest analysis, provided an in-depth look at processing in the fusiform gyrus.

The second analysis probed whole brain functioning to see how the different training conditions engaged other regions of the brain. The fusiform gyrus was localized in each individual with anatomical markers described in detail below and in James [ 31 ]. Following this analysis, simple effects analyses one-way repeated measures ANOVAs were performed contrasting overall effects of letters verus shapes in each region; then a priori t -tests were performed comparing the effects of the letters in each possible pairing of different visuo-motor training conditions.

Results of the region-of-interest analyses in the bilateral fusiform gyrus. Percent BOLD signal change during perception as a function of training condition in all children is depicted. All letter training conditions are depicted in blue, shape conditions in orange. Error bars depict standard error of the mean. Data is depicted from the a left anterior fusiform gyrus, b right anterior fusiform, c left posterior fusiform, and d left posterior fusiform. For interpretation of the references to color in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.

To better understand the main effect of training, t -tests comparing overall collapsing across stimuli differences between pairs of training types were performed. Because of the lack of interaction, no further tests were performed on these data. In the left anterior fusiform, the analysis of variance revealed significant main effects of both stimulus type letters vs. A priori t -tests comparing the letter training conditions see Fig.

In the left posterior fusiform, the overall ANOVA produced main effects of both stimulus type letters vs. Although our hypotheses centered on visual processing changes due to training, and specifically changes in processing in the fusiform gyrus, we also wanted to see whether the training conditions differed from one another in other regions of the brain.

To this end, we performed contrasts of interest in individual brains and also averaged activation together using Talairach transformations on each individual prior to grouping. Nonetheless, given the mixed opinions on whether or not transforming brains of 5-year olds into an adult template is a valid procedure see [ 11 , 23 , 38 ] , we report only those contrasts that were observed both at the individual and at the group level.

For brevity, we report and display averaged data here. Talairach coordinates and ranges are reported in Table 2. There were no significant differences in the group contrasts of activations in the control letters and control shapes conditions—without any practice, letters and shapes were not processed differently in the brains of these children. We then tested whether or not our specific training experiences would alter this pattern—would the training result in different neural recruitment of regions processing letters versus shapes? There were no differences in brain activation patterns to letters versus shapes after typing or tracing experience.

However, there was greater activation in several regions during letter perception than during shape perception following printing and drawing of letters and shapes. These regions are components of a motor system, and their higher levels of activation during letter perception may reflect reactivation of motor systems that are letter specific. Other regions visible in Fig. Voxel-wise whole brain contrast between training printing letters and drawing shapes.

Figure depicts significant activation in the bilateral precentral gyri and the bilateral inferior parietal lobe. See Table 1 for full Talairach co-ordinates. Our second contrast was designed to investigate how the different letter training conditions affected letter perception. Here, we compared the three letter training conditions with one another. First, we compared letter perception after printing letters versus after typing letters. In addition, printing experience recruited the left anterior cingulate cortex more than typing experience Fig. There were no areas that were more active after typing experience than after printing experience.

Next, we compared letter perception after printing experience versus after tracing experience. Again, there were no regions more active during letter perception after tracing letters than after printing letters. Finally, the comparison of activation during letter perception after experience tracing letters versus after experience typing letters found greater activation in the bilateral IFG after tracing, but no areas of greater activation after typing Fig. Voxel-wise whole brain contrast of a printed letter trainings4typed letter training, depicting the left IFG activation and b the left ACC activation. Contrast of printed letter training4traced letter training is depicted in c showing the IPL and SPL activation and d depicts the traced letter training4-typed letter training.

See Table 1 for Talairach coordinates. In sum, the results of the whole brain analysis suggest that a only after practice printing letters does the brain respond differently during letter versus shape perception; b that free-form printing and tracing practice both result in the recruitment of the inferior frontal gyrus during letter perception; c that free-form printing experience recruits posterior parietal regions and the precentral gyrus more than tracing experience during letter perception; and d that typing experience does not recruit any brain regions more than other sensori-motor conditions during letter perception.

Overall, the results of this study support the hypothesis that after self-generated printing experience, letter perception in the young child recruits components of the reading systems in the brain more than other forms of sensori-motor practice. Specifi-cally, after self-generated printing experience letter perception recruits the IFG, left ACC and the fusiform gyrus more than after typing; and printing experience recruits posterior parietal cortex and the fusiform gyrus more than does tracing experience.

The IFG, fusiform gyrus and the posterior parietal cortex PPC are all regions that are known to subserve reading in the literate individual cf. Thus, after printing practice, the brain activates a network used for reading and writing. Experience printing letters recruits the motor cortex, specifically the precentral gyrus, more than does experience drawing shapes.

The Activation of the motor cortex during perceptual tasks has been well documented, but only occurs if the percept represents an item that has been interacted with previously. The results of the whole brain analyses reported here replicate previous work showing that letter perception activates the motor cortex [ 33 , 41 ]. We, and others [ 41 , 42 ], maintain that this activation is due to our motor experience writing letters that is reactivated during visual perception. That is, the visual and sensori-motor representations of letters are not only associated to one another during learning, but also interact during subsequent letter processing forming a functional network.

Our current work further suggests that parts of this network are experience-specific in the young child. That is, the motor regions were recruited more only after self-generated printing practice was performed. The left precentral gyrus has also been shown to be recruited during letter writing [ 39 , 58 ] and letter perception [ 33 ]. Thus, we show here that letter perception activates regions that are recruited during letter writing, similar to Longcamp et al.

Further, our results show bilateral activation of the precentral gyrus rather than unilateral as demonstrated in previous work [ 39 , 58 ]. However, these previous findings tested seasoned readers and writers [ 41 , 33 ]. Because the children in the present study have immature fine-motor systems and are just starting to write, their handedness may not be well established. Degree of handedness increases between ages 3 and 7 and sometimes continues to strengthen up to 9 years of age [ 49 ]. Experience forming letters through self-generation as well as through tracing activated the IFG more than experience typing letters. Thus the IFG appears to be involved in motor generation of letters, feature-by-feature. The IFG is a heterogenous area that has been linked to numerous cognitive functions, one of its best-known functions, however, is in language production.

Here we demonstrate that experience with language production by hand—printing, also recruits this region. This finding could reflect sub-vocal rehearsal of the letter names prior to printing them, although one would expect that this letter naming may also occur during our other conditions, especially typing, where the letter name is probably kept in mind while the letter is searched for on the keyboard.

Interestingly, an electrophysiology study also found involvement of the IFG during writing, and although this region does not usually emerge as active during writing using fMRI e. Interestingly, in the present study, the IFG does not emerge as significantly active during all letter perception conditions, only during perception of letters that were printed or traced—perhaps this specificity may account for why the recruitment of the region is variable among studies.

The difference among these conditions could only emerge from the training episode, copying and tracing involving a feature-by-feature construction of a letter compared to the search and type procedure in typing. Linking features together in an organized way to form a whole is also important in forming words and sentences a well-known function of the IFG ; therefore it may be this particular aspect of printing experience that requires the IFG. Accessing a stored motor program of a letter-form may also be important for letter identification. We suggest that the IFG is maybe required to access stored information regarding fine motor skill plans and those that organize features together in a meaningful way; thus it is involved with motor planning, control and execution.

Typing does not require a fine motor plan, as the movement is the same for all letters. The sequence of movements required for printing a particular letter the motor plan may be a activated due to the association formed during learning, or b used during visual perception to augment visual letter processing. In either scenario, activation in the IFG during letter perception may reflect activation of letter specific motor plans.

The posterior parietal cortex was recruited during letter perception after self-generated printing practice more than drawing shapes and tracing letter practice. Thus, the IPL and, to a lesser extent, the SPL appear to be specifically recruited after printing but not after any other type of practice. Here we can begin to understand what part of the writing process requires the PPC because of our differential effects of printing vs.

Both free-form printing and tracing experience involved copying a letter that was always displayed either on a card in front of child for copying, or on a sheet of paper for tracing , constructing a visual image of the letter was not necessary in either type of practice. However, the two tasks differ in at least two important ways: a self-generated printing that does not follow a visual guide as in tracing requires fine motor execution that is quite different from tracing. That is, the printer must keep track of strokes being performed, and link them in a way that forms the letter in question. This task requires more vigilance in terms of fine motor skill as well as adhering to learned spatial relationships among features.

And b that the output of the two types of practice are visually very different. We will discuss these two hypotheses in turn below. Research has pointed towards an important role of the anterior intraparietal sulcus AIP in attention directed towards motor activities. Further, left AIP and the supramarginal gyrus are involved more with motor attention to hand movements than is right AIP, that is recruited more during ocular motor attention [ 60 ]. It is quite possible that during printing, motor attention is engaged more than during tracing and this increased activity is reactivated during visual perception of letters. Other work has pointed towards the posterior parietal cortex playing a role in graphomotor representation [ 65 ].

In this study, writing of letters recruited both the right IPS for newly learned letters and bilateral IPS during execution of well-learned letters. In addition, both the IPS and SPS were recruited during imagery of the motor plan for producing letters, suggesting that both motor plans as well as execution may require the posterior parietal lobe. Our results add to this idea, only self-generation of letters recruited the PPC, suggesting that the motor plans, and not execution per se require the participation of the PPC. A second hypothesis for the role of the PPC during letter processing is that the output of the motor actions that are then visually processed is very different when comparing self-generated printing vs.

In the case of printing, the child sees the messy, non-stereotypical form of the letter that they are trying to copy, whereas after tracing, the child sees the usual form of the letter. One hypothesis that we have put forth is that viewing these non-stereotypical forms may aid in constructing broad categories of letters that may facilitate letter recognition. The visual processing capacity of the parietal cortex has long been known e. Our results suggest that visual perception without action also recruits the parietal cortex, but this perception may require a history of actions pertaining to the perceived item. Recent work has shown a role for the intraparietal sulcus in categorization of visual information in non-human primates [ 68 ], and a significant functional relatedness between ventral temporal reading regions and the posterior parietal cortex in humans has been demonstrated [ 70 ].

These recent findings suggest that visual association regions may have an important connection to the PPC. Further, the PPC has important connections to the premotor regions in the frontal lobe cf. Thus, the PPC can be considered to be part of a vision and action system, perhaps providing visual information to motor regions, or integrating visual and motor information. These speculations require further testing in both the visual and motor domains. The role of the anterior cingulate cortex is much debated, but is usually observed during tasks that involve cognitive control, and specifically, during conflict monitoring and error detection during decision tasks [ 9 , 10 ]. Interestingly, the participants in our experiment were not required to perform any task during scanning, and thus, we have asserted that the differences seen during letter perception are due to our training conditions.

The fact that the ACC is recruited more during the perception of letters that were printed rather than typed suggests that perhaps this region is re-activated after a task that required greater conflict monitoring—that is, printing does require monitoring of performance and comparing that output to stored knowledge. That printing in these young children results in many errors in the resultant form, whereas typing does not, may result in the greater ACC response seen here. Our region-of-interest analysis clearly demonstrates that in a region known to be involved in reading and letter processing—the left fusiform gyrus [ 20 , 24 , 34 , 62 ] is recruited more after printing experience than experience in typing, tracing or simply perceiving letters control stimuli.

This novel finding extends the results of James [ 31 ] by demonstrating that it is specifically experienced in the line-by-line printing of letters, and not just any experience involving attention to, or production of letters, that has an impact on the activation of the fusiform gyrus. In addition, we show activation in the right anterior fusiform gyrus that is specific to drawing and tracing letters as well as to drawing shapes. As has been previously proposed, in early readers, letter processing is more bilateral than in more advanced readers [ 62 ], supporting the general notion of interactive specialization in the developing brain cf. The current results support previous work regarding the role of the fusiform gyrus while at the same time refining our knowledge of its relationship to motor experience.

In this study, as in James [ 31 ], activation in the left fusiform gyrus was modulated as a result of motor experience. Because this region was more active after printing experience than typing or tracing suggests that there is something about printing per se that changes visual processing to letters. We believe that it is the production of variable forms of letters that results from printing that produces this change in visual processing. That it is the output from this system—the printed form that serves to create exemplars that are variable, in turn producing input to an abstract category.

That is, the motor output from parietal and frontal regions creates the visual input that is processed in the fusifrom gyrus. This input may be stored along with other instances of the stimulus, serving to broaden the perceptual category that refers to a particular letter. Once exemplars of abstract categories are successfully classified, left hemisphere structures dominate visual recognition [ 64 ]. It makes sense that classifying exemplars into subordinate level categories like letters would recruit this region given the abundance of literature showing that experts classify their objects of expertise in the fusiform gyrus cf. In fact we have recent research showing this phenomena with expert categorization in children—those that were experts in a category of visual objects recruited the bilateral fusiform more than novices James and James, submitted [ 35 ].

One interesting difference in the present study and the notion proposed by Seger et al. Presumably, this is because letters are the basis of reading, which is left lateralized in the literate adult, or it may be due to the type of exemplar categorization that is being performed: that is, how diverse the exemplars are in appearance. Lateralization issues aside, the most novel result of our ROI analysis is that visual processing of letters is affected by specific motor experience—the act of printing a letter. Katanoda et al. Previous work has found reactivation of this region during letter perception [ 41 ]; thus we expected to see activation here as well. Learning to write letters is not a simple task; children must use their immature fine-motor skills to adopt a specific series of writing strokes for each character [ 22 , 43 ].

Further, the exact location of each stroke relative to other strokes, overlap of strokes and orientation of strokes are all crucial for subsequent letter identification. At the same time, the child must learn that other dimensions, such as size, slant of global form, and small features added to the strokes as in serifs , are not important for letter recognition. Understanding the important attributes that define letter identity is not a simple task, and printing may be the gateway through which children learn the attributes of letters that are important for successful categorization.

Thus, we argue that construction of letters, stroke by stroke, helps children understand the important components that define a letter. But this creation process is not the whole story, or we would see the same results for printing free-form and for tracing. Although the actual motor tasks of printing and tracing may be very similar, the processes that occur prior to the motor act as well as the output of the motor act are both quite different. Only free-form printing leads to a non-stereotypical, noisy form of a specific letter. We assert here that this variable output is a crucial factor in learning to identify and categorize letters. Categorization based on exemplars that are variable may create a broader letter representation, leading to enhanced letter identification skill, and perhaps greater fusiform gyrus activation.

In summary, when preliterate children perceive letters, only free-form printing experience results in the recruitment of the visual areas used in letter-processing, and the motor regions seen in letter production. This finding adds to previous research showing that letter perception is facilitated by handwriting experience, and it further suggests that handwriting experience is important for letter processing in the brain. We wish to thank all the children who participated in this study and their parents, without whom developmental research would not progress. Also to Roma Bose and Alyssa Kersey for assisting in data collection, and Susan Jones and Andrew Butler for helpful comments on earlier versions of this manuscript.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Trends Neurosci Educ. Author manuscript; available in PMC Dec Karin H. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Copyright notice. The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Trends Neurosci Educ. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract In an age of increasing technology, the possibility that typing on a keyboard will replace handwriting raises questions about the future usefulness of handwriting skills. Introduction Reading is a relatively recent development for citizens in general in the history of human cognition, but it has become a crucial skill for functioning in modern society.

Materials and methods 2. Participants Fifteen children 8 females; ages 4 years 2 months to 5 years 0 months with right-hand dominance as determined by a revised Edinburgh questionnaire [ 14 ] were recruited from the Bloomington, Indiana community to participate in the study. Stimuli and apparatus In each condition, children were shown a letter or shape on an index card and asked to draw, trace or type the item without it being named by the experimenter. Procedure 2. MRI acclimation After screening and informed consent, children were acclimated to the MRI environment by watching a cartoon in an artificial scanner.

Training in the visual—motor tasks tracing, drawing and typing letters and shapes Participants were seated at a desk with the experimenter seated beside them. Imaging session Prior to actual scanning, parents filled out a medical questionnaire to assess possible safety issues and parents and children were again asked for their consent verbally to continue with the experiment they had already signed a consent form. Data analysis procedures A Regions-of-interest ROI analysis was performed using anatomical localization of the anterior and posterior fusiform gyri as reported previously [ 31 ], in each individual brain. Results 3. Literacy evaluations Participant performance on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, Bader Reading and Language Inventory [ 5 ], and the Beery—Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual—motor Integration [ 7 ] was all within the typical range for all children tested and there were no outliers detected in any of our measures by ESD method see Table 1 for scores.

Table 1 Partic. Open in a separate window. Region-of-interest analyses The fusiform gyrus was localized in each individual with anatomical markers described in detail below and in James [ 31 ]. Left anterior fusiform gyrus In the left anterior fusiform, the analysis of variance revealed significant main effects of both stimulus type letters vs. Left posterior fusiform gyrus In the left posterior fusiform, the overall ANOVA produced main effects of both stimulus type letters vs. Whole-brain analyses Although our hypotheses centered on visual processing changes due to training, and specifically changes in processing in the fusiform gyrus, we also wanted to see whether the training conditions differed from one another in other regions of the brain.

Table 2 Whole brain contrast results. Letter vs. Differences resulting from typing, tracing and printing letters on letter perception Our second contrast was designed to investigate how the different letter training conditions affected letter perception. Discussion Overall, the results of this study support the hypothesis that after self-generated printing experience, letter perception in the young child recruits components of the reading systems in the brain more than other forms of sensori-motor practice.

Motor cortex activation after self-generated printing Experience printing letters recruits the motor cortex, specifically the precentral gyrus, more than does experience drawing shapes. Inferior frontal gyrus activation after printing and tracing Experience forming letters through self-generation as well as through tracing activated the IFG more than experience typing letters. Posterior parietal cortex PPC recruitment during letter perception The posterior parietal cortex was recruited during letter perception after self-generated printing practice more than drawing shapes and tracing letter practice.

Anterior cingulate recruitment after printing practice The role of the anterior cingulate cortex is much debated, but is usually observed during tasks that involve cognitive control, and specifically, during conflict monitoring and error detection during decision tasks [ 9 , 10 ]. The role of the fusiform gyrus in letter processing Our region-of-interest analysis clearly demonstrates that in a region known to be involved in reading and letter processing—the left fusiform gyrus [ 20 , 24 , 34 , 62 ] is recruited more after printing experience than experience in typing, tracing or simply perceiving letters control stimuli.

Acknowledgments We wish to thank all the children who participated in this study and their parents, without whom developmental research would not progress. References 1. Troubled letters but not numbers: domain specific cognitive impairments following focal damage in frontal cortex. Corticocortical connections of anatomically and physiologically defined subdivisions within the inferior parietal lobule. Journal of Comparative Neurology. Dissociated disorders of speaking and writing in aphasia. Journal of Nuerology and Neurosurgery psychiatry. Brain L. Speech disorders: aphasia, apraxia and agnosia. London: Butter-worth; Bader LA. Bader reading and language inventory. Beauregard M, et al.

The neural substrate for concrete, abstract, and emotional word lexica: a positron emission tomography study. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. The Beery—Buktenica developmental test of visual—motor integration. Letter and grapheme perception in English and Dutch. Written Language and Literacy. Conflict monitoring and anterior cingulate cortex: an update. Trends in Cognitive Science. Conflict monitoring versus selection-for-action in anterior cingulate cortex. Burgund ED, et al. The feasibility of a common stereotactic space for children and adults in fMRI studies of development.

Estimating the risk of future reading difficulties in kindergarten children: a research-based model and its clinical implementation. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools. Cohen L, et al. The visual word form area: spatial and temporal characterization of an initial stage of reading in normal subjects and posterior split-brain patients. Cohen MS. Handedness questionnaire. Hemispheric asymmetry in the processing of absolute versus relative spatial frequency. In sum, then praising children is fundamental to their intelligence and development; however, such praise has to be carefully phrased.

Intellectual and ability praise is not only harmful to the child's growth, but it can also be detrimental to the relationship between parents and their children. Furthermore, without the proper wording of the praise children may see it as empty and feel as though they lack the ability of the task at hand. If a child is not confident they may find it hard to interact with other children, have a negative outlook on life, be less motivated and have behavioural problems. Overall, if a child lacks confidence, self-esteem and resilience their health and well-being will be hindered. I have gained patience when working with children and I believe it is a skill that is required in order for children to exceed their needs and to help a child during transitions to reach their full potential.

Timing is key and with support the children will be able to emotionally adapt to attending school but also embrace new surroundings. Encouragement while children are taking part in activities in school allows children to gain self-esteem and confidence as they are being motivated which can give them a sense of achievement. Being a role model to the children is a personal skill as it gives me pride knowing the children are inspired by me and that they can learn from me by using their own initiative, being helpful to others and allowing the children to give suggestions on what they would like to do can keep them.

In order to contribute a positive relationship it is essential to demonstrate and model an effective communication skill when dealing with children which means that considering both how the practitioner approach other people and responding the children. It is effectively more likely to communicate information to one another if having a positive relationship. Effective communication plays an important role in developing positive relation with children, young people and adults. When culture is valued child will feel more secure and develop sense of belonging to the centre and the community. If we educators show that children have a sense of belonging, children will feel more confident and build more safe relationship with everyone.

He uses his emotional appeals well, and could be considered unbiased, based on his discussing both sides of the spectrum with respect to teaching. At the end of the story, the readers are filled with hope that with this call of action, society as a whole will help these children, instead of pushing them down that economic hole that is hard to get out. Without observation, overall planning would simply be based on what we felt was important, fun or interesting or all three but it might not necessarily meet the needs of the children and young people in our care.

Carrying out regular observations is vital because it ensures that we put the pupils at the centre of our practice. Through observations we can discover if a child or young person has developed new skills, their likes and dislikes, strengths and weaknesses as well as their understanding of what they are expected to do. Observation helps us assess pupils progress; we can find out about the specific care and learning needs of each child. Strong positive relationships within the school environment and with parents is very beneficial to children. It helps to model effective communication and set a good example of appropriate behaviour towards others which in turn helps the children to recognise boundaries and what is acceptable when communicating with their peers and adults.

Plus building a strong, trusting relationship with the children and young people makes them feel valued and helps provide a more effective learning environment and helps build their confidence with communicating as they progress through their lives. If there is a communication breakdown between any relationship and we do not treat each other with mutual respect then this can lead to situations becoming out of control and misunderstandings that can lead to bad feelings within the workplace as well as the children witnessing incorrect behaviour and then imitating.

Furthermore, in the society or in any social circle where young learners operate, the ability to speak and to listen is crucial in the development of their total personality and eventually social horizon. Children need to speak what they need, feel, and think to be addressed, helped, and understood. In addition to these, Palmer mentioned in the introduction of his book, Teaching the Core Skills of Listening and Speaking, that making students listen a lot does not automatically make them good listeners, and occasionally making them speak in front of the class does not automatically make them good speakers. The implication of this statement. It will help grow their independence and the child will be confident in themselves. As parents though if you do not give that independence to the child they will be overly dependent on you as a parent.

They will also feel they cannot do it themselves because you do the work for them.

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