⚡ Haitian Earthquake Essay

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Haitian Earthquake Essay



Thank you for this lovely article Nothing extra and nothing less than the true Haiti. The remainder of the Haitian Earthquake Essay was forced Haitian Earthquake Essay A Rhetorical Analysis Of Lincolns The Gettysburg Address two more actions Haitian Earthquake Essay their return to Europe, but did eventually Haitian Earthquake Essay the Haitian Earthquake Essay port of Corunna. Wikiquote has quotations related to: Haitian Revolution. Support the SSRC.

Video shows aftermath of 7.2-magnitude Haiti earthquake

Activity: Which is the best worded question? Imagine that you have been asked to write an essay about earthquakes. The broad topic that you have chosen is the social impact of earthquakes. You have narrowed down your topic and decided to focus on the issue of homelessness caused by the Haitian earthquake of You are particularly interested in why there were high levels of homelessness several years after the earthquake. Which of these three options is the best research question? Drag and drop to match each question with the most accurate description of its effectiveness as a research question.

Home Courses Library Donate. Previous menu Toggle navigation. Why is academic integrity important? What is academic integrity? How can I study with integrity? Case history 1. Case history 2. Mental state examination 2. Mental state examination 3. Physical examination 3. Physical examination 4. Summary and diagnosis 4. Summary and diagnosis 5. Formulation 5. Formulation 6. Management 6. Skip to content Skip to navigation. In general, however, a good research question should be: Clear and focused. In other words, the question should clearly state what the writer needs to do.

Not too broad and not too narrow. The question should have an appropriate scope. If the question is too broad it will not be possible to answer it thoroughly within the word limit. If it is too narrow you will not have enough to write about and you will struggle to develop a strong argument see the activity below for examples. Not too easy to answer. For example, the question should require more than a simple yes or no answer. Not too difficult to answer. You must be able to answer the question thoroughly within the given timeframe and word limit. You must have access to a suitable amount of quality research materials, such as academic books and refereed journal articles. Analytical rather than descriptive.

In other words, your research question should allow you to produce an analysis of an issue or problem rather than a simple description of it more on this below. How to create a research question 1. Determine the requirements Before you can construct a good research question you will need to determine the requirements of your assignment. Choose a topic Have you been given a list of topics to choose from or can you choose your own? Conduct preliminary research Before you write your question it is advisable to read a small number of relevant academic sources. Narrow down your topic Having conducted some preliminary research you should now be in a position to narrow down your topic. There are several ways that you might go about narrowing down your topic: Think about the subtopics, specific issues, and key debates that exist within the broader topic.

Think about the value of focusing on a particular period of time, a particular geographical location, a particular organisation, or a particular group of people. Think about what you want to say in your assignment. What are the key points and arguments that you want to get across? Which subtopic, timeframe or other limitation would allow you to make these points in the most effective way? Write your question Now that you have narrowed down your topic you can turn your attention to the wording of your research question.

An average of ships engaged every year in shipping products from Saint-Domingue to Bordeaux , and the value of the colony's crops and goods was almost equal in value to all of the products shipped from the Thirteen Colonies to Great Britain. Slavery sustained sugar production under harsh conditions, including the unhealthy climate of the Caribbean, where diseases such as malaria brought from Africa and yellow fever caused high mortality. In alone, the French imported about 20, slaves from Africa into Saint-Domingue, while the British imported about 38, slaves total to all of their Caribbean colonies.

They calculated that it was better to get the most work out of their slaves with the lowest expense possible, since they were probably going to die of yellow fever anyway. The planters and their families, together with the petite bourgeoisie of merchants and shopkeepers, were outnumbered by slaves by a factor of more than ten on Saint-Domingue. The largest sugar plantations and concentrations of slaves were in the north of the islands, and whites lived in fear of slave rebellion. When slaves left the plantations or disobeyed their masters, they were subject to whipping , or to more extreme torture such as castration or burning, the punishment being both a personal lesson and a warning for other slaves.

King Louis XIV of France passed the Code Noir in in an attempt to regulate such violence and the treatment of slaves in general in the colony, but masters openly and consistently broke the code. During the 18th century, local legislation reversed parts of it. In , the planters began passing legislation restricting the rights of other groups of people until a rigid caste system was defined. Most historians classify the people of the era into three groups:.

The first group were white colonists, or les blancs. This group was generally subdivided into the plantation owners and a lower class of whites who often served as overseers or day laborers, artisans and shopkeepers. The second group were free people of color , or gens de couleur libres , were usually mixed-race sometimes referred to as mulattoes , being of both African and French descent.

These gens de couleur tended to be educated and literate, and the men often served in the army or as administrators on plantations. Many were children of white planters and enslaved mothers, or free women of color. Others had purchased their freedom from their owners through the sale of their own produce or artistic works. They often received education or artisan training, and sometimes inherited freedom or property from their fathers. Some gens de couleur owned and operated their own plantations and became slave owners.

The third group, outnumbering the others by a ratio of ten to one, was made up of mostly African-born slaves. A high rate of mortality among them meant that planters continually had to import new slaves. This kept their culture more African and separate from other people on the island. Many plantations had large concentrations of slaves from a particular region of Africa, and it was therefore somewhat easier for these groups to maintain elements of their culture, religion, and language. This also separated new slaves from Africa from creoles slaves born in the colony , who already had kin networks and often had more prestigious roles on plantations and more opportunities for emancipation. The majority of the slaves were Yoruba from what is now modern Nigeria , Fon from what is now Benin , and Kongo from the Kingdom of Kongo in what is now modern northern Angola and the western Congo.

This belief system implicitly rejected the Africans' status as slaves. Saint-Domingue was a society seething with hatred, with white colonists and black slaves frequently coming into violent conflict. The French historian Paul Fregosi wrote: "Whites, mulattos and blacks loathed each other. The poor whites couldn't stand the rich whites, the rich whites despised the poor whites, the middle-class whites were jealous of the aristocratic whites, the whites born in France looked down upon the locally born whites, mulattoes envied the whites, despised the blacks and were despised by the whites; free Negroes brutalized those who were still slaves, Haitian born blacks regarded those from Africa as savages.

Everyone—quite rightly—lived in terror of everyone else. Haiti was hell, but Haiti was rich". Many runaway slaves—called maroons —hid on the margins of large plantations, living off the land and what they could steal from their former masters. Others fled to towns, to blend in with urban slaves and freed blacks who often migrated to those areas for work. If caught, these runaway slaves would be severely and violently punished. However, some masters tolerated petit marronages , or short-term absences from plantations, knowing these allowed release of tensions. The larger groups of runaway slaves who lived in the hillside woods away from white control often conducted violent raids on the island's sugar and coffee plantations. Although the numbers in these bands grew large sometimes into the thousands , they generally lacked the leadership and strategy to accomplish large-scale objectives.

He united the maroon bands and established a network of secret organizations among plantation slaves, leading a rebellion from through Although Mackandal was captured by the French and burned at the stake in , large armed maroon bands persisted in raids and harassment after his death. French writer Guillaume Raynal attacked slavery in his history of European colonization. He warned, "the Africans only want a chief, sufficiently courageous, to lead them on to vengeance and slaughter. Raynal's admonition was written thirteen years before the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen , which highlighted freedom and liberty but did not abolish slavery.

In addition to Raynal's influence, Toussaint Louverture , a free black who was familiar with Enlightenment ideas within the context of European colonialism, would become a key "enlightened actor" in the Haitian Revolution. Enlightened thought divided the world into "enlightened leaders" and "ignorant masses"; [26] Louverture sought to bridge this divide between the popular masses and the enlightened few by striking a balance between Western Enlightened thought as a necessary means of winning liberation, and not propagating the notion that it was morally superior to the experiences and knowledge of people of color on Saint-Domingue.

The existence of slavery in Enlightened society was an incongruity that had been left unaddressed by European scholars prior to the French Revolution. Louverture took on this inconsistency directly in his constitution. In addition, he exhibited a connection to Enlightenment scholars through the style, language, and accent [ further explanation needed ] What is the "accent" of a text? Like Louverture, Jean-Baptiste Belley was an active participant in the insurrection. The portrait of Belley by Anne-Louis Girodet de Roussy-Trioson depicts a man who encompasses the French view of its colonies, creating a stark dichotomy between the refinement of Enlightenment thought and the reality of the situation in Saint-Domingue, through the bust of Raynald and the figure of Belley, respectively.

While distinguished, the portrait still portrays a man trapped by the confines of race. Girodet's portrayal of the former National Convention deputy is telling of the French opinion of colonial citizens by emphasizing the subject's sexuality and including an earring. Both of these racially charged symbols reveal the desire to undermine the colony's attempts at independent legitimacy, as citizens of the colonies were not able to access the elite class of French Revolutionaries because of their race.

The colony was not only the most profitable possession of the French colonial empire , but it was the wealthiest and most prosperous colony in the Caribbean. The colony's white population numbered 40,; mulattoes and free blacks, 28,; and black slaves, an estimated , Two-thirds of the slaves were African born, and they tended to be less submissive than those born in the Americas and raised in slave societies. The slave population declined at an annual rate of two to five percent, due to overwork, inadequate food and shelter, insufficient clothing and medical care, and an imbalance between the sexes, with more men than women. This relatively privileged class was chiefly born in the Americas, while the under-class born in Africa labored hard, and often under abusive and brutal conditions.

Among Saint-Domingue's 40, white colonists, European-born Frenchmen monopolized administrative posts. The sugar planters, or grands blancs literally, "big whites" , were chiefly minor aristocrats. Most returned to France as soon as possible, hoping to avoid the dreaded yellow fever, which regularly swept the colony. Saint-Domingue's free people of color, or gens de couleur libres , numbered more than 28, Around that time, colonial legislations, concerned with this growing and strengthening population, passed discriminatory laws that required these freedmen to wear distinctive clothing and limited where they could live.

These laws also barred them from occupying many public offices. These men would become important leaders in the slave rebellion and later revolution. Saint-Domingue's Northern province was the center of shipping and trading, and had the largest population of grands blancs. It was the area of greatest economic importance, especially as most of the colony's trade went through these ports. The largest and busiest port was Le Cap, the former capital of Saint-Domingue. The Western province, however, grew significantly after the colonial capital was moved to Port-au-Prince in , becoming increasingly wealthy in the second half of the 18th century. The Southern province lagged in population and wealth because it was geographically separated from the rest of the colony.

However, this isolation allowed freed slaves to find profit in trade with Jamaica, and they gained power and wealth here. After the establishment of the French First Republic , the National Assembly made radical changes to French laws and, on 26 August , published the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen , declaring all men free and equal. The Declaration was ambiguous as to whether this equality applied to women, slaves, or citizens of the colonies, and thus influenced the want for freedom and equality in Saint-Domingue.

White planters saw it as an opportunity to gain independence from France, which would allow them to take control of the island and create trade regulations that would further their own wealth and power. The African population on the island began to hear of the agitation for independence by the planters, who had resented France's limitations on the island's foreign trade. The Africans mostly allied with the royalists and the British, as they understood that if Saint-Domingue's independence were to be led by white slave masters, it would probably mean even harsher treatment and increased injustice for the African population. The planters would be free to operate slavery as they pleased without the existing minimal accountability to their French peers.

Saint-Domingue's free people of color, most notably Julien Raimond , had been actively appealing to France for full civil equality with whites since the s. Raimond used the French Revolution to make this the major colonial issue before the National Assembly. The conflict up to this point was between factions of whites, and between whites and free blacks. Enslaved blacks watched from the sidelines. Leading 18th-century French writer Count Mirabeau had once said the Saint-Domingue whites "slept at the foot of Vesuvius ", [42] suggesting the grave threat they faced should the majority of slaves launch a sustained major uprising. Spanish colony of Santo Domingo. Santo Domingo.

Real Audiencia of Panama , New Spain , suppressed. Veracruz , New Spain , victorious. British Province of New York , suppressed. British Chesapeake Colonies , suppressed. Danish Saint John , suppressed. British Province of South Carolina , suppressed. Spanish Louisiana New Spain , suppressed. Spanish Louisiana , suppressed. Simons Island , Georgia , victorious. Territory of Orleans , suppressed. Spanish Cuba , suppressed. British Jamaica , suppressed. Off the Southern U. Guillaume Raynal attacked slavery in the edition of his history of European colonization. He also predicted a general slave revolt in the colonies, saying that there were signs of "the impending storm".

Since white planters refused to comply with this decision, within two months isolated fighting broke out between the former slaves and the whites. This added to the tense climate between slaves and grands blancs. Raynal's prediction came true on the night of 21 August , when the slaves of Saint-Domingue rose in revolt; thousands of slaves attended a secret vodou ceremony as a tropical storm came in—the lighting and the thunder was taken as auspicious omens —and later that night, the slaves began to kill their masters and plunged the colony into civil war. Whites kept control of only a few isolated, fortified camps. The slaves sought revenge on their masters through "pillage, rape, torture, mutilation, and death".

The masters and mistresses were dragged from their beds to be killed, and the heads of French children were placed on spikes that were carried at the front of the rebel columns. The planters had long feared such a revolt, and were well armed with some defensive preparations. But within weeks, the number of slaves who joined the revolt in the north reached , Within the next two months, as the violence escalated, the slaves killed 4, whites and burned or destroyed sugar plantations and hundreds of coffee and indigo plantations. Though demanding freedom from slavery, the rebels did not demand independence from France at this point.

Most of the rebel leaders professed to be fighting for the king of France, who they believed had issued a decree freeing the slaves, which had been suppressed by the colonial governor. As such, they were demanding their rights as Frenchmen which been granted by the king. By , slave rebels controlled a third of the island. The Assembly granted civil and political rights to free men of color in the colonies in March Apart from granting rights to free people of color, the Assembly dispatched 6, French soldiers to the island.

Meanwhile, in , France declared war on Great Britain. The grands blancs in Saint-Domingue, unhappy with Sonthonax, arranged with Great Britain to declare British sovereignty over the colony, believing that the British would maintain slavery. He further thought that taking Saint-Domingue, the richest of the French colonies, would be a useful bargaining chip in eventual peace negotiations with France, and in the interim, occupying Saint-Domingue would mean diverting its great wealth into the British treasury. Spain, which controlled the rest of the island of Hispaniola Santo Domingo , also joined the conflict and fought with Great Britain against France. The proportion of slaves was not as high in the Spanish portion of the island.

Spanish forces invaded Saint Domingue and were joined by the rebels. For most of the conflict, the British and Spanish supplied the rebels with food, ammunition, arms, medicine, naval support, and military advisors. By August , there were only 3, French soldiers on the island. Sonthonax sent three of his deputies, namely the colonist Louis Duffay, the free black army officer Jean-Baptiste Belley and a free man of colour, Jean-Baptiste Mills to seek the National Convention 's endorsement for the emancipation of slaves near the end of January, It abolished slavery by law in France and all its colonies, and granted civil and political rights to all black men in the colonies.

The French constitutions of and both included the abolition of slavery. The constitution of never went into effect, but that of did; it lasted until it was replaced by the consular and imperial constitutions under Napoleon Bonaparte. Despite racial tensions in Saint Domingue, the French revolutionary government at the time welcomed abolition with a show of idealism and optimism. The emancipation of slaves was viewed as an example of liberty for other countries, much as the American Revolution was meant to serve as the first of many liberation movements. Georges Danton , one of the Frenchmen present at the meeting of the National Convention, expressed this sentiment:. Representatives of the French people, until now our decrees of liberty have been selfish, and only for ourselves.

But today we proclaim it to the universe, and generations to come will glory in this decree; we are proclaiming universal liberty We are working for future generations; let us launch liberty into the colonies; the English are dead, today. In nationalistic terms, the abolition of slavery also served as a moral triumph of France over England, as seen in the latter half of the above quote. Yet Toussaint Louverture did not stop working with the Spanish army until sometime later, as he was suspicious of the French. The British force that landed in Saint-Domingue in was too small to conquer the place, being capable only of holding only few coastal enclaves.

The French planters were disappointed as they had hoped to regain power; Sonthonax was relieved, as he had twice refused ultimatums from Commodore John Ford to surrender Port-au-Prince. The main British force for the conquest of Saint-Domingue under General Charles Grey , nicknamed "No-flint Grey", and Admiral Sir John Jervis set sail from Portsmouth on 26 November , which was in defiance of the well-known rule that the only time that one could campaign in the West Indies was from September to November, when the mosquitoes that carried malaria and yellow fever were scarce.

Lucia, and Guadeloupe. At this point, Toussaint, for reasons that remain obscure, suddenly joined the French and turned against the Spanish, ambushing his allies as they emerged from attending mass in a church at San Raphael on 6 May He said he did not seek independence from France, and urged the surviving whites, including the former slave masters, to stay and work with him in rebuilding Saint-Domingue. Within two months of arriving in Saint-Domingue, the British had lost 40 officers and men to yellow fever.

At this point, Pitt decided to reinforce failure by launching what he called "the great push" to conquer Saint-Domingue and the rest of the French West Indies, sending out the largest expedition Britain had yet mounted in its history, a force of about 30, men to be carried in ships. In Dublin and Cork, soldiers from the th , th , th , and th regiments of foot rioted when they learned that they were being sent to Saint-Domingue. General Ralph Abercromby , the commander of the forces committed to the "great push", hesitated over which island to attack when he arrived in Barbados on 17 March The French had built a deep defensive ditch with palisades, while Forbes had neglected to bring along heavy artillery.

On 11 April Colonel Thomas Maitland of the 62nd Regiment of Foot landed in Port-au-Prince, and wrote in a letter to his brother that British forces in Saint-Domingue had been "annihilated" by the yellow fever. One British officer wrote of his horror of seeing his friends "drowned in their own blood" while "some died raving Mad". Toussaint retook the fortress at Mirebalais. In March Maitland returned with a mandate to withdraw, at least from Port-au-Prince. However, Toussaint sent a message to Balcarres, warning him that if he persisted, to remember that Jamaica was not far from St Domingue, and could be invaded.

Maitland knew that his forces could not defeat Toussaint, and that he had to take action to protect Jamaica from invasion. In the end of , Maitland withdrew the last of his forces from Mole St Nicholas, as Toussaint took command of the fortress. Many of them joined Toussaint's army. Between and , the expedition to Saint-Domingue had cost the British treasury four million pounds and , men either dead or permanently disabled from the effects of yellow fever. After the departure of the British, Toussaint turned his attention to Rigaud, who was conspiring against him in the south of Saint Domingue. Taking no prisoners, Rigaud's predominantly mulatto forces put blacks and whites to the sword.

Though the United States was hostile towards Toussaint, the U. Navy agreed to support Toussaint's forces with the frigate USS General Greene , commanded by Captain Christopher Perry, providing fire support to the blacks as Toussaint laid siege to the city of Jacmel , held by mulatto forces under the command of Rigaud. In the early 21st century, historian Robert L. Scheina estimated that the slave rebellion resulted in the death of , Haitians and 50, European troops. Geggus points out that at least 3 of every 5 British troops sent there in — died of disease. One of the most successful black commanders was Toussaint Louverture , a self-educated former domestic slave.

After the British had invaded Saint-Domingue, Louverture decided to fight for the French if they would agree to free all the slaves. Sonthonax had proclaimed an end to slavery on 29 August Louverture abandoned the Spanish army in the east and brought his forces over to the French side on 6 May after the Spanish refused to take steps to end slavery. Under the military leadership of Toussaint, the forces made up mostly of former slaves succeeded in winning concessions from the British and expelling the Spanish forces. In the end, Toussaint essentially restored control of Saint-Domingue to France.

Louverture was very intelligent, organized and articulate. Having made himself master of the island, however, Toussaint did not wish to surrender too much power to France. He began to rule the country as an effectively autonomous entity. Toussaint defeated a British expeditionary force in In addition, he led an invasion of neighboring Santo Domingo December , and freed the slaves there on 3 January In , Louverture issued a constitution for Saint-Domingue that decreed he would be governor-for-life and called for black autonomy and a sovereign black state.

In response, Napoleon Bonaparte dispatched a large expeditionary force of French soldiers and warships to the island, led by Bonaparte's brother-in-law Charles Leclerc , to restore French rule. Bonaparte ordered that Toussaint was to be treated with respect until the French forces were established; once that was done, Toussaint was to be summoned to Le Cap and arrested; if he failed to show, Leclerc was to wage "a war to the death" with no mercy and all of Toussaint's followers to be shot when captured.

It will be safeguarded for you, since it has been only too well earned by your own efforts. Do not worry about the liberty of your fellow citizens". In a letter to Jean-Jacques Dessalines , Toussaint outlined his plans for defeating the French: "Do not forget, while waiting for the rainy reason which will rid us of our foes, that we have no other resource than destruction and fire. Bear in mind that the soil bathed with our sweat must not furnish our enemies with the smallest sustenance. Tear up the roads with shot; throw corpses and horses into all the foundations, burn and annihilate everything in order that those who have come to reduce us to slavery may have before their eyes the image of the hell which they deserve".

And forbidding burial, he left stacks of corpses rotting in the sun to strike terror into the French detachments as they toiled behind his flying columns". Leclerc ordered four French columns to march on Gonaives , which was the main Haitian base. My troops are exhausted with fatigue and sickness". On 25 April , the situation suddenly changed when Christophe defected, along with much of the Haitian Army, to the French. Louverture agreed to this on 6 May Leclerc also gave Toussaint a plantation at Ennery. He died months later in prison at Fort-de-Joux in the Jura Mountains. Throughout the countryside, guerrilla warfare continued and the French staged mass executions via firing squads, hanging, and drowning Haitians in bags.

For a few months, the island was quiet under Napoleonic rule. But when it became apparent that the French intended to re-establish slavery because they had nearly done so on Guadeloupe , black cultivators revolted in the summer of Yellow fever had decimated the French; by the middle of July , the French lost about 10, dead to yellow fever. However, the Poles were told that there was a revolt of prisoners in Saint-Domingue. Upon arrival and the first fights, the Polish platoon soon discovered that what was actually taking place in the colony was a rebellion of slaves fighting off their French masters for their freedom.

Many Poles believed that if they fought for France, Bonaparte would reward them by restoring Polish independence, which had been ended with the Third Partition of Poland in As a result, many Polish soldiers admired their opponents, to eventually turn on the French army and join the Haitian slaves. Polish soldiers participated in the Haitian revolution of , contributing to the establishment of the world's first free black republic and the first independent Caribbean state. As Leclerc lay dying of yellow fever and heard that Christophe and Dessalines had joined the rebels, he reacted by ordering all of the blacks living in Le Cap to be killed by drowning in the harbour. His successor, the Vicomte de Rochambeau , fought an even more brutal campaign.

Rochambeau waged a near-genocidal campaign against the Haitians, killing everyone who was black. No one would eat fish from the bay for months afterward, as no one wished to eat the fish that had eaten human flesh. Dessalines matched Rochambeau in his vicious cruelty. At Le Cap, when Rochambeau hanged blacks, Dessalines replied by killing whites and sticking their heads on spikes all around Le Cap, so that the French could see what he was planning on doing to them. Many on both sides had come to see the war as a race war where no mercy was to be given. The Haitians burned French prisoners alive, cut them up with axes, or tied them to a board and sawed them into two.

Dessalines won a string of victories against Leclerc and Rochambeau, becoming arguably the most successful military commander in the struggle against Napoleonic France. Napoleon then turned his attention towards France's European enemies such as Great Britain and Prussia. With that, he withdrew a majority of the French forces in Haiti to counter the possibility of an invasion from Prussia, Britain, and Spain on a weakened France. With Napoleon's inability to send the requested massive reinforcements after the outbreak of war on 18 May with the British, the Royal Navy immediately despatched a squadron under Sir John Duckworth from Jamaica to cruise in the region, seeking to eliminate communication between the French outposts and to capture or destroy the French warships based in the colony.

The Blockade of Saint-Domingue not only cut the French forces out from reinforcements and supplies from France, but also meant that the British began to supply arms to the Haitians. He lost interest in commanding his army and as James wrote, he "amused himself with sexual pleasures, military balls, banquets and the amassing of a personal fortune". In the summer of , when war broke out between the United Kingdom and the French Consulate, Saint-Domingue had been almost completely overrun by Haitian forces under the command of Jean-Jacques Dessalines.

Two days later an independently sailing French frigate was chased down and captured in the same waters. The British, led by Commodore John Loring gave chase, but one French ship of the line and a frigate escaped. Another ship of the line was trapped against the coast and captured after coming under fire from Haitian shore batteries. The remainder of the squadron was forced to fight two more actions on their return to Europe, but did eventually reach the Spanish port of Corunna.

By this point, Perry observed that both sides were "a little mad" as the pressures of the war and yellow fever had taken their toil, and both the French and the Haitians fought with a reckless courage, seeing death in battle as preferable to a slow death by yellow fever or being tortured to death by the enemy. Rochambeau, seeing defeat inevitable, procrastinated until the last possible moment, but eventually was forced to surrender to the British commander—by the end of the month the garrison was starving, having reached the conclusion at a council of war that surrender was the only way to escape from this "place of death".

On the night of 30 November , 8, French soldiers and hundreds of white civilians boarded the British ships to take them away. Soon after, the few remaining French-held towns in Saint-Domingue surrendered to the Royal Navy to prevent massacres by the Haitian army. Meanwhile, Dessalines led the rebellion until its completion, when the French forces were finally defeated by the end of Although he lasted from to , several changes began taking place in Haiti. The independence of Haiti was a major blow to France and its colonial empire, but the French state would take several decades to recognize the loss of the colony.

As the French retreated, Haiti, which had once been called the "Pearl of the Antilles", the richest French colony in the world, was impoverished, as its economy was in ruins after the revolution. Haiti struggled to recover economically from the war. On 1 January , Dessalines, the new leader under the dictatorial constitution, declared Haiti a free republic in the name of the Haitian people, [] which was followed by the massacre of the remaining whites. The country was damaged from years of war, its agriculture devastated, its formal commerce nonexistent. To realise this goal, Dessalines adopted the economic organisation of serfdom. To avoid the appearance of slavery, however, Dessalines abolished the ultimate symbol of slavery, the whip. Barred from using the whip, many instead turned to lianes , which were thick vines abundant throughout the island, to persuade the laborers to keep working.

Workers were given a fourth of all wealth produced from their labor. Nevertheless, he succeeded in rebuilding much of the country and in raising production levels, thus slowly rebuilding the economy. Dessalines paid large sums of money to liberate slaves on slave ships in near the Haitian coast. He paid for the expenses of the returns of the thousands of Haitian refugees that left during the revolution.

Fearing a return of French forces, Dessalines first expanded and maintained a significant military force. Cities and commercial centers were moved to the interior of the country, while less important ones were kept to the coast, so they could be burnt down completely to discourage the French; many commentators believe that this over militarization contributed to many of Haiti's future problems.

There was growing frustration between the workers, the elites, and Dessalines. A conspiracy led by the mulatto elites ultimately led to Dessalines assassination and two separate sovereign states of Haiti. The massacre was carried out against the remaining white population of French colonists [] and loyalists, [] both enemies and traitors of the revolution, [] by the black population of Haiti on the order of Jean-Jacques Dessalines , who declared the French as barbarians , demanding their expulsion and vengeance for their crimes. During February and March, Dessalines traveled among the cities of Haiti to assure himself that his orders were carried out.

Despite his orders, the massacres were often not carried out until he personally visited the cities. The course of the massacre showed an almost identical pattern in every city he visited. Before his arrival, there were only a few killings, despite his orders. Reportedly, he also ordered the unwilling to take part in the killings, especially men of mixed race, so that blame would not rest solely on the black population. In parallel to the killings, plundering and rape also occurred. Women and children were generally killed last. White women were "often raped or pushed into forced marriages under threat of death". By the end of April , some 3, to 5, people had been killed [] practically eradicating the country's white population.

Dessalines had specifically stated that France is "the real enemy of the new nation. An independent government was created in Haiti, but the country's society remained deeply affected by patterns established under French colonial rule. As in other French colonial societies, a class of free people of color had developed after centuries of French rule here. Many planters or young unmarried men had relations with African or Afro-Caribbean women, sometimes providing for their freedom and that of their children, as well as providing for education of the mixed-race children, especially the boys. Some were sent to France for education and training, and some joined the French military.

The mulattoes who returned to Saint-Domingue became the elite of the people of color. As an educated class used to the French political system, they became the elite of Haitian society after the war's end. Many of them had used their social capital to acquire wealth, and some already owned land. Some had identified more with the French colonists than the slaves. Many of the free people of color, by contrast, were raised in French culture, had certain rights within colonial society, and generally spoke French and practiced Catholicism with syncretic absorption of African religions. There were large differences in governance between Petion's republic, and what would eventually become Christophe's kingdom.

While the southern republic did not have as much focus on economic development, and put more attention on liberal land distribution and education, the northern kingdom went on to become relatively wealthy, though wealth distribution was disputed. As a result of temporary trade agreements between Christophe, the United States, and British colonies, Christophe was able to rebuild the northern region.

There were large investments in education and public works, military infrastructure, and many chateaux, the most notable being the Sans Souci palace in Milot. However, much like his predecessors, this was achieved through forced labor which ultimately led to his downfall. Contrarily, Petion was beloved by his people, but despised by his northern counterpart. A major effort by Christophe to take Port-au-Prince in mid— failed. The mulattoes were harassed by a pocket of black rebellion in their rear from February to May A black leader named Goman kept alive the angry spirit of Dessalines in the southern mountains of the Grand-Anse, resisting several mulatto punitive expeditions.

Finally, in , the new mulatto leader, Jean-Pierre Boyer , sent six regiments into the Grand-Anse to ferret out Goman. The black rebel was trapped and shot off a 1,foot-high cliff. In , the island nation was finally reunified when Christophe, ill and surrounded by new rebellions, killed himself.

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