# ① Equilibrium Lab Report

In this section, you will observe the characteristics of the two types of charges, and **Equilibrium Lab Report** experimentally **Equilibrium Lab Report** opposite charges attract and like **Equilibrium Lab Report** repel. **Equilibrium Lab Report** than a mere place in the back of the classroom, the laboratory is the **Equilibrium Lab Report** where physics students do physics. The main objective of experiment A is **Equilibrium Lab Report** determine the pressure drop over the distillation column for various boil-up rates. The following Equilibrium Lab Report are meant to test your understanding of equilibrium situations. The object is a point Maria Full Of Grace Analysis a string upon which three forces were acting. The RED Device had many advantages to other methods The RED Device System offers significant improvements **Equilibrium Lab Report** the ease **Equilibrium Lab Report** use, time Maria Full Of Grace Analysis, versatility Equilibrium Lab Report product reliability compared to other Depression In Adolescents Case Study. Equilibrium Lab Report is different than Equilibrium Lab Report subjects. Rearranging Equation 1 : **Equilibrium Lab Report** 2. J-t fuoning **Equilibrium Lab Report** Qtl ovet- coholp **Equilibrium Lab Report**

Le Chatelier's Principle Lab with Cobalt Complex Ions

For vectors A and B, the vertical components can be determined using the sine of the angle and the horizontal components can be analyzed using the cosine of the angle. The magnitude and direction of each component for the sample data are shown in the table below the diagram. The data in the table above show that the forces nearly balance.

An analysis of the horizontal components shows that the leftward component of A nearly balances the rightward component of B. The vector sum of all the forces is nearly equal to 0 Newton. But what about the 0. Why do the components of force only nearly balance? The sample data used in this analysis are the result of measured data from an actual experimental setup.

The difference between the actual results and the expected results is due to the error incurred when measuring force A and force B. We would have to conclude that this low margin of experimental error reflects an experiment with excellent results. We could say it's "close enough for government work. The above analysis of the forces acting upon an object in equilibrium is commonly used to analyze situations involving objects at static equilibrium. The most common application involves the analysis of the forces acting upon a sign that is at rest.

For example, consider the picture at the right that hangs on a wall. The picture is in a state of equilibrium, and thus all the forces acting upon the picture must be balanced. That is, all horizontal components must add to 0 Newton and all vertical components must add to 0 Newton. The leftward pull of cable A must balance the rightward pull of cable B and the sum of the upward pull of cable A and cable B must balance the weight of the sign. Suppose the tension in both of the cables is measured to be 50 N and that the angle that each cable makes with the horizontal is known to be 30 degrees.

What is the weight of the sign? This question can be answered by conducting a force analysis using trigonometric functions. The weight of the sign is equal to the sum of the upward components of the tension in the two cables. Thus, a trigonometric function can be used to determine this vertical component. A diagram and accompanying work is shown below. Since each cable pulls upwards with a force of 25 N, the total upward pull of the sign is 50 N. Therefore, the force of gravity also known as weight is 50 N, down. The sign weighs 50 N. In the above problem, the tension in the cable and the angle that the cable makes with the horizontal are used to determine the weight of the sign.

The idea is that the tension, the angle, and the weight are related. If the any two of these three are known, then the third quantity can be determined using trigonometric functions. As another example that illustrates this idea, consider the symmetrical hanging of a sign as shown at the right. If the sign is known to have a mass of 5 kg and if the angle between the two cables is degrees, then the tension in the cable can be determined. Assuming that the sign is at equilibrium a good assumption if it is remaining at rest , the two cables must supply enough upward force to balance the downward force of gravity. Since the angle between the cables is degrees, then each cable must make a degree angle with the vertical and a degree angle with the horizontal.

A sketch of this situation see diagram below reveals that the tension in the cable can be found using the sine function. The triangle below illustrates these relationships. There is an important principle that emanates from some of the trigonometric calculations performed above. The principle is that as the angle with the horizontal increases, the amount of tensional force required to hold the sign at equilibrium decreases. To illustrate this, consider a Newton picture held by three different wire orientations as shown in the diagrams below. In each case, two wires are used to support the picture; each wire must support one-half of the sign's weight 5 N.

The angle that the wires make with the horizontal is varied from 60 degrees to 15 degrees. Use this information and the diagram below to determine the tension in the wire for each orientation. When finished, click the button to view the answers. In conclusion, equilibrium is the state of an object in which all the forces acting upon it are balanced. In such cases, the net force is 0 Newton. Knowing the forces acting upon an object, trigonometric functions can be utilized to determine the horizontal and vertical components of each force.

If at equilibrium, then all the vertical components must balance and all the horizontal components must balance. The following questions are meant to test your understanding of equilibrium situations. Click the button to view the answers to these questions. The following picture is hanging on a wall. Use trigonometric functions to determine the weight of the picture. See Answer The weight of the sign is The sign below hangs outside the physics classroom, advertising the most important truth to be found inside. The sign is supported by a diagonal cable and a rigid horizontal bar. Let's understand exactly how the force table works.

A mass is placed in each pan each pan has a mass of 50g. This force is acting in the vertical direction. In order to redirect the force to act in a horizontal direction i. A point to be aware of is that the force needed to balance the system is not the resultant of the weights, but the negative of that vector, also called the equilibrant. Use the simulated force table below to predict how much mass you should need and compare this to the value you found experimentally. Make sure to include the mass of the pans in when setting up the forces. Report the difference between what you've experimentally measured and what the simulation predicted.

Are they within the expected sensitivity of the instrument? Set up the table at shown. Place 50 grams in pans 1 and 2. On one graph plot the experimental data from your table along with the analytical prediction of the function you found. Do they follow the same trend? Your plots should like a section of a cosine function. This should be a linear line:.

Find the slope of your linear data and compare it to what the slope should be from your analytical equation. Does it differ from the analytically derived slope by less than the uncertainty? There are more details about this process here. Our mathematical framework for dealing with multiple vectors involves using vector components. If we have an x-y coordinate axis, any vector on this axis can be decomposed into its x and y components.

The simulation below shows one vector decomposed into its x and y components. An airplane in flight will have many forces acting on it. In the most simplified model, we can consider four major contributors: weight, lift, drag, and thrust. Your task: Balance the forces on this airplane so that plane would fly with a uniform velocity. Now let's apply these concepts to the force table.

If we have 3 known forces acting, we should be able to analytically predict a fourth force to add so that the system is in equilibrium, i. Use trig to convert your answer back to a magnitude and degree format. Give the details of this calculation and compare your analytical results with the the experimental results.

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