⌛ Zero Tolerance Policies In High School
Achieving the recommended minutes per Zero Tolerance Policies In High School for physical education can be difficult in the many secondary schools that Zero Tolerance Policies In High School block schedules, which feature a 820 mile long european river number of classes, and Zero Tolerance Policies In High School classes Zero Tolerance Policies In High School longer than those at schools with different schedules. X Sign in Zero Tolerance Policies In High School bookmark this item. Healthy eating Zero Tolerance Policies In High School physical activity also play a significant role in students' Zero Tolerance Policies In High School performance. USDA provides guidance on accommodating children with special dietary needs, supported Zero Tolerance Policies In High School the Zero Tolerance Policies In High School nondiscrimination regulationallowing for substitutions or modifications in the National School Meals Program for children whose disabilities restrict their diet Zero Tolerance Policies In High School certified Domestic Violence Abusers Summary a licensed physician Zero Tolerance Policies In High School If parents cannot be reached then the officer will call other numbers from the emergency card. Related Resources. Outsmarting Poverty addition, both vitamin D and regular physical activity enhance the positive effects of calcium In addition, many of the policies lacked plans for implementing and monitoring the status of the wellness Republican Parties Vs. Democratic Parties
OPINION: Zero Tolerance in Schools
Similarly, a student in possession of ibuprofen may be expelled for drug possession. Critics cite a variety of outrageous examples of zero-tolerance policies gone wrong. The task force that conducted the study expressed concern that zero tolerance policies were unnecessarily preventing children from getting a public education and causing many children to face legal charges for relatively minor offenses. In , the American Academy of Pediatrics released a detailed report criticizing zero tolerance policies.
The report expressed concern that such policies are harmful to students because students who receive suspensions and expulsions are 10 times more likely to drop out of high school. Students who are sent home may not have an adult to supervise their activities and they may become more likely to engage in illegal activity. There are many alternatives to zero-tolerance policies that can help keep kids in school while also teaching them valuable life lessons. Of course, violence prevention is one of the best ways to keep everyone in a school system safe.
Restorative justice programs and community service may be better interventions for first-time offenders. Out-of-school suspensions and expulsions could then be reserved for repeat offenders who pose a real risk to school systems. Understand what the policy covers and makes certain your child understands the policy. Take a proactive approach to prevent your child from breaking the policy by having aspirin in a pocket or a squirt gun in a backpack. And stay involved with your child's school so you can understand the reasons behind their rules and the best ways to keep your child safe. Get diet and wellness tips to help your kids stay healthy and happy. Department of Education. Subpart 3 - Gun Possession.
Updated September 15, Are zero tolerance policies effective in the schools? An evidentiary review and recommendations. Am Psychol. American Psychological Association. Council on School Health. Out-of-School Suspension and Expulsion. Table of Contents View All. Table of Contents. Pro May be required by law Aim to keep kids safer Reduces favoritism Prepares children for the real world. Taste preference for milk, among both males and females, is associated with calcium intake Taste preferences for fruits and vegetables are one of the strongest reported correlates of fruit and vegetable intake among males and females Male and female adolescents who reported frequent fast-food restaurant visits three or more visits in the past week were more likely to report that healthy foods tasted bad, that they did not have time to eat healthy foods, and that they cared little about healthy eating Certain behaviors and attitudes among children and adolescents are related to healthy eating.
For example, behavior-change strategies that are initiated by children and adolescents e. Among female adolescents, self-efficacy to make healthy food choices and positive attitudes toward nutrition and health are significantly related to calcium intake The home environment and parental influence are strongly correlated with youth eating behaviors. Home availability of healthy foods is one of the strongest correlates of fruit, vegetable, and calcium and dairy intakes 92, Family meal patterns, healthy household eating rules, and healthy lifestyles of parents influence fruit, vegetable, calcium and dairy, and dietary fat intake of adolescents The physical food environment in the community, including the presence of fast-food restaurants, grocery stores, schools, and convenience stores, influences access to and availability of foods and beverages A lack of grocery stores in neighborhoods is associated with reduced access to fresh fruits and vegetables 99, and less healthy food intake Low-income neighborhoods have fewer grocery stores than middle-income neighborhoods, predominantly black neighborhoods have half the number of grocery stores as predominantly white neighborhoods, and predominantly Hispanic neighborhoods have one third the amount of grocery stores as predominantly non-Hispanic neighborhoods Furthermore, lower-income and minority neighborhoods tend to have more fast-food restaurants than high-income and predominately white neighborhoods During , approximately three in 10 children and adolescents consumed at least one fast-food meal per day; those who reported eating fast foods consumed more total calories than those who did not Children and adolescents who report eating fast foods tend to consume more total energy, fat, and sugar-sweetened beverages and consume less milk, fruits, and nonstarchy vegetables Children and adolescents are more likely than adults to report fast-food consumption The school environment also influences youth eating behaviors and provides them with opportunities to consume an array of foods and beverages throughout the school day.
The widespread availability of foods and beverages served outside of the federal school lunch and breakfast programs is well-documented , These products, referred to as competitive foods and beverages because they are sold in competition with traditional school meals, often are sold in the school cafeteria and are available throughout school buildings, on school grounds, or at school-sponsored events. Food advertising and marketing influence food and beverage preferences and purchase requests of children and adolescents i.
Children and adolescents are exposed to many forms of marketing, including television advertisements, advertising on the Internet and advergames i. Physical activity is defined as "any bodily movement produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle that increases energy expenditure above a basal level" 9. Examples of physical activity include walking, running, bicycling, swimming, jumping rope, active games, resistance exercises, and household chores.
The guidelines indicate that children and adolescents should include vigorous intensity, muscle-strengthening, and bone-strengthening activities at least 3 days of the week. HHS also recommends encouraging children and adolescents to participate in activities that are age appropriate, are enjoyable, and offer variety 9. Healthy People national health objectives include an objective on increasing the proportion of adolescents who meet current federal physical activity PA guidelines for aerobic physical activity and for muscle-strengthening activity objective PA 3 Despite national guidelines for physical activity, many young persons are not regularly physically active.
Regular participation in physical activity among children and adolescents is related to demographic, personal, social, and environmental factors. Hispanic and non-Hispanic black students are less active than their non-Hispanic white counterparts This difference also is evident during childhood and continues through adulthood, with non-Hispanic white adults having the highest prevalence of activity compared with other ethnic groups Sex is correlated with physical activity levels, with males participating in more overall physical activity than females This trend continues through adulthood, with females remaining less physically active than males Adolescent males also report a greater intention to be physically active in the future than females Children and adolescents who intend to be active in the future and who believe physical activity is important for a healthy lifestyle engage in more activity.
Overall, personal fulfillment influences the motivation both of boys and girls to be physically active Child and adolescent perceptions of their ability to perform a physical activity i. Girls are motivated by physical activities that they prefer and by their confidence in their ability to perform an activity Boys are affected by their ability to perform a particular physical activity, as well as by social norms among both friends and parents Positive social norms and support from friends and family encourage youth involvement in physical activity among all children and adolescents ,, Parent and family support for physical activity can be defined as a child's perception of support e.
Youth perceptions and parent reports of support for physical activity are strongly associated with participation in both structured and nonstructured physical activity among children and adolescents ,, The physical environment can be both a benefit and a barrier to being physically active. Environmental factors that might pose a barrier to physical activity include low availability of safe locations to be active, perceived lack of access to physical activity equipment, cost of physical activities, and time constraints , Youth perceptions of neighborhood safety e. Parents' perceptions about environmental factors also influence physical activity among children and adolescents.
For example, parents rate distance and safety as top barriers for their children walking to school The school environment can also influence the participation of children and adolescents in physical activity. Although this is a critical opportunity for children and adolescents to participate in physical activity, schools do not provide it daily. In addition, many schools do not regularly provide other physical activity opportunities during the school day, such as recess. When schools provide supportive environments by enhancing physical education , and health education , having staff members become role models for physical activity, increasing communication about the benefits of physical activity, and engaging families and communities in physical activity, children and adolescents are more likely to be physically active and maintain a physically active lifestyle Television viewing, nonactive computer use, and nonactive video and DVD viewing are all considered sedentary behaviors.
Television viewing among children and adolescents, in particular, has been shown to be associated with childhood and adult obesity Potential mechanisms through which television viewing might lead to childhood obesity include 1 lower resting energy expenditure, 2 displacement of physical activity, 3 food advertising that influences greater energy intake, and 4 excess eating while viewing , Overall, persons aged years spend an average of 7 hours and 11 minutes per day watching television, using a computer, and playing video games The home environment offers children and adolescents many opportunities for television viewing, including eating meals while watching television or having a television in their bedroom The presence of a television in a child's bedroom is associated with more hours spent watching television 0.
The likelihood of having a television in the bedroom increases with a child's age , Eating meals in front of the television is associated with more viewing hours Children and adolescents are more likely to engage in unhealthy eating behaviors when watching television ,, and are exposed to television advertisements promoting primarily restaurants and unhealthy food products , Increased television viewing among children and adolescents is associated with consuming more products such as fast food, soft drinks, and high-fat snacks ,,, and consuming fewer fruits and vegetables ,, Healthy People national health objectives include a comprehensive plan for health promotion and disease prevention in the United States.
Healthy People includes objectives related to physical activity and healthy eating among children and adolescents and in schools Appendix B Schools have direct contact with students for approximately 6 hours each day and for up to 13 critical years of their social, psychological, physical, and intellectual development The health of students is strongly linked to their academic success, and the academic success of students is strongly linked with their health.
Therefore, helping students stay healthy is a fundamental part of the mission of schools School health programs and policies might be one of the most efficient means to prevent or reduce risk behaviors, prevent serious health problems among students, and help close the educational achievement gap , Schools offer an ideal setting for delivering health promotion strategies that provide opportunities for students to learn about and practice healthy behaviors. Schools, across all regional, demographic, and income categories, share the responsibility with families and communities to provide students with healthy environments that foster regular opportunities for healthy eating and physical activity. Healthy eating and physical activity also play a significant role in students' academic performance.
The importance of healthy eating, including eating breakfast, for the overall health and well-being of school-aged children cannot be understated. Most research on healthy eating and academic performance has focused on the negative effects of hunger and food insufficiency 62 and the importance of eating breakfast 65,, Recent reviews of breakfast and cognition in students 73,, report that eating a healthy breakfast might enhance cognitive function especially memory , increase attendance rates, reduce absenteeism, and improve psychosocial function and mood. Certain improvements in academic performance such as improved math scores also were noted 65, A growing body of research focuses on the association between school-based physical activity, including physical education, and academic performance among school-aged children and adolescents.
A comprehensive CDC literature review that included 50 studies synthesized the scientific literature on the association between school-based physical activity, including physical education, and academic performance, including indicators of cognitive skills and attitudes, academic behaviors e. The review identified a total of associations between school-based physical activity and academic performance. Therefore, the evidence suggests that 1 substantial evidence indicates that physical activity can help improve academic achievement, including grades and standardized test scores; 2 physical activity can affect cognitive skills and attitudes and academic behavior including enhanced concentration, attention, and improved classroom behavior ; and 3 increasing or maintaining time dedicated to physical education might help and does not appear to adversely affect academic performance Schools can promote the acquisition of lifelong healthy eating and physical activity behaviors through strategies that provide opportunities to practice and reinforce these behaviors.
School efforts to promote healthy eating and physical activity should be part of a coordinated school health framework, which provides an integrated set of planned, sequential, and school-affiliated strategies, activities, and services designed to promote the optimal physical, emotional, social, and educational development of students. A coordinated school health framework involves families and is based on school and community needs, resources, and standards. The framework is coordinated by a multidisciplinary team such as a school health council and is accountable to the school and community for program quality and effectiveness School personnel, students, families, community organizations and agencies, and businesses can collaborate to successfully implement the coordinated school health approach and develop, implement, and evaluate healthy eating and physical activity efforts.
Ideally, a coordinated school health framework integrates the efforts of eight components of the school environment that influence student health i. The following guidelines reflect the coordinated school health approach and include additional areas deemed to be important contributors to school health: policy development and implementation and professional development for program staff. This report includes nine general guidelines for school health programs to promote healthy eating and physical activity. Each guideline is followed by a series of strategies for implementing the general guidelines.
Because each guideline is important to school health, there is no priority order. Guidelines presented first focus on the importance of a coordinated approach for nutrition and physical activity policies and practices within a health-promoting school environment. Then, guidelines pertaining to nutrition services and physical education are provided, followed by guidelines for health education, health, mental health and social services, family and community involvement, staff wellness, and professional development for staff.
Although the ultimate goal is to implement all guidelines recommended in this report, not every guideline and its corresponding strategies will be feasible for every school to implement. Because of resource limitations, some schools might need to implement the guidelines incrementally. Therefore, the recommendation is for schools to identify which guidelines are feasible to implement, based on the top health needs and priorities of the school and available resources.
Families, school personnel, health-care providers, businesses, the media, religious organizations, community organizations that serve children and adolescents, and the students themselves also should be systematically involved in implementing the guidelines to optimize a coordinated approach to healthy eating and regular physical activity among school-aged children and adolescents. The guidelines in this report are not clinical guidelines; compliance is neither mandatory nor tracked by CDC. However, CDC monitors the status of student health behaviors and school health policies and practices nationwide through three surveillance systems. These systems provide information about the degree to which students are participating in healthy behaviors and schools are developing and implementing the policies and practices recommended in the guidelines.
YRBSS includes a national, school-based survey conducted by CDC and state, territorial, tribal, and district surveys conducted by state, territorial, and local education and health agencies and tribal governments. YRBSS data are used to 1 measure progress toward achieving national health objectives for Healthy People and other program and policy indicators, 2 assess trends in priority health-risk behaviors among adolescents and young adults, and 3 evaluate the effect of broad school and community interventions at the national, state, and local levels. In addition, state, territorial, and local agencies and nongovernmental organizations use YRBSS data to set and track progress toward meeting school health and health promotion program goals, support modification of school health curricula or other programs, support new legislation and policies that promote health, and seek funding and other support for new initiatives.
SHPPS data are used to 1 identify the characteristics of each school health program component e. The School Health Profiles i. State, local, and territorial education and health officials use Profiles data to 1 describe school health policies and practices and compare them across jurisdictions, 2 identify professional development needs, 3 plan and monitor programs, 4 support health-related policies and legislation, 5 seek funding, and 6 garner support for future surveys. Results from the surveys are described throughout this report.
Physical education, health education, and other teachers; school nutrition service staff members; school counselors; school nurses and other health, mental health, and social services staff members; community health-care providers; school administrators; student and parent groups; and community organizations should work together to maximize healthy eating and physical activity opportunities for students Box 1. Coordination of all these persons and groups facilitates greater communication, minimizes duplication of policy and program initiatives, and increases the pooling of resources for healthy eating and physical activity policies and practices Establish a school health council and designate a school health coordinator at the district level.
Each district should have a school health council to help ensure that schools implement developmentally appropriate and evidence-based health policies and practices. The school health council serves as a planning, advisory, and decision-making group for school health policies and programs. School health councils should include representatives from different segments of the school and community, including health and physical education teachers, nutrition service staff members, students, families, school administrators, school nurses and other health-care providers, social service professionals, and religious and civic leaders The school health council provides input on decisions about how to promote health-enhancing behaviors, including healthy eating and physical activity among students.
Some roles of school health councils include Each district also should designate a school health coordinator who manages and coordinates health-related policies and practices across the district, including those related to healthy eating and physical activity. This person serves as an active member of the district-level school health council and communicates the district school health council's decisions and actions to school-level health coordinators and teams, staff, students, and parents , A district school health coordinator also should. Establish a school health team and designate a school health coordinator at the school level. Each school should establish a school health team, representative of school and community groups, to work with the greater school community to identify and address the health needs of students, school administrators, parents, and school staff.
A school health team. Every school also should designate a school health coordinator to manage the school health policies, practices, activities, and resources, including those that address healthy eating and physical activity. School health coordinators might. An assessment of current school-based healthy eating and physical activity policies and practices is necessary to provide baseline information about strengths and weaknesses. An assessment can also identify how district-level policies are being implemented at the school level and in the development of community-specific strategies.
An assessment enables the school health council, school health coordinator, parents, school administrators, and school board members to develop a data-based plan for improving student health. Schools and school districts can refer to the School Health Index for a comprehensive list of policies and practices that promote healthy eating and physical activity in schools. The School Health Index guides schools through the development of an action plan to improve their school health policies and practices , Results from the School Health Index assessment and action plan can help schools determine where, what, and how to incorporate health promotion programs and policies into their overall school improvement plan.
Inclusion in the school improvement plan helps ensure that health is a regular item on agendas of district school board meetings and school-based management committees. Completing the School Health Index can lead to positive changes in the school health environment. For example, after completing the School Health Index, some schools have hired a physical education teacher for the first time, added healthier food choices to school meal programs, and incorporated structured fitness breaks into the school day An assessment might also involve collection of data on current eating and physical activity behaviors of students, community-based nutrition and physical activity programs, and student, staff, and parent needs School health policies are official statements from education agencies and other governing bodies e.
They identify what should be done, why it should be done, and who is responsible for doing it. School health policies can School health policies should comply with federal, state, and local laws and mandates. School health councils, teams, and coordinators can lead the development, implementation, and monitoring of policies , The Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act of required that each school district participating in the federally supported meal program establish a local school wellness policy for the first time by school year By , most school districts had a local wellness policy; however, the quality of policies varied across school districts.
In addition, many of the policies lacked plans for implementing and monitoring the status of the wellness policy The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of updated requirements for local school wellness policy to include, at a minimum,. The act also requires that the U. Department of Agriculture USDA , in conjunction with the CDC director, "prepare a report on the implementation, strength, and effectiveness of the local school wellness policies" States, districts, and schools should use a systematic approach when developing, implementing, and monitoring healthy eating and physical activity policies.
They can use the following strategies throughout the policy process. Identify and involve key stakeholders from the beginning of the policy process. One person, such as the school health coordinator at the district or school level, depending on the level at which the policy is to be implemented , should assume or be designated with overall responsibility for coordinating and implementing healthy eating and physical activity policies. This person also can help identify and involve key stakeholders, including the school health council or team.
Key stakeholders in district- and school-level policy processes include students, families, school nutrition service staff, physical education teachers, health education teachers, school nurses, school principals and other administrators, staff from local health departments, health-care providers, and staff from local community organizations and businesses. This group of stakeholders will contribute to the development, implementation, and monitoring of healthy eating and physical activity policies. Draft the policy language. Policy language should be specific, simple, clear, and accurate; avoid education, health, and legal jargon; and be easy for readers with diverse backgrounds to understand and apply.
Policy language should be consistent with state, district, and school visions for student learning and health and other policies in the same jurisdiction. A written policy should describe Adopt, implement, and monitor healthy eating and physical activity policies. After the draft policy is completed, the process of adopting the policy begins , To ensure greater support for policy adoption, school health council members or other policy makers should be given time to share the draft policy with their partners and gather reactions. Public hearings or other meetings that gather wider input from the school and community might be beneficial or required. Such hearings allow every interested person or organization to provide input on the policy.
Policy adoption typically requires that the drafted policy be presented to the policy-making body e. The presentation should include background information about why the policy is needed e. Policies likely will require final approval by the school board, the district superintendent, or both. Implementation of policies should be a cooperative effort that includes the school health coordinator, school health council, and school staff members.
All school staff members and teachers, in particular, need sufficient time to implement the policy and make agreed-on changes in the school environment to support the policy Those responsible for implementation should be prepared to address challenges, such as perceptions that the policy is low priority, limited resources for full implementation, changes in school administrators and school staff members, and concerns such as lost revenue from certain food and beverage sales and resolving scheduling conflicts for use of physical activity facilities because of increasing numbers of physical activity programs Parental and community concerns might be mitigated by making incremental changes and ensuring that the media receive positive stories about the response to the policy.
Monitoring policy implementation allows school staff members to determine whether the policy yielded the expected results and which changes could be made to improve the results. Establishing policy is an important component of many of the nine guidelines. Following is a list of key healthy eating and physical activity policies that are described in the remaining guidelines:. Evaluation can be used to assess and improve policies and practices that promote increased physical activity and healthier eating among students and faculty members. All groups involved in and affected by school efforts to promote lifelong physical activity and healthy eating should have the opportunity to contribute to evaluation.
Education agencies and schools should designate a person to take the lead on evaluation activities. Schools may choose to enlist local universities, the health department, or the education department to assist with the evaluation of school policies and practices. Evaluation can serve various purposes, including 1 improving the content, support for, and implementation of physical activity and healthy eating policies and practices; 2 documenting changes in the school environment, physical education and health education curricula, physical activity and healthy eating services for students and school staff members, physical activity and dietary habits, and health outcomes such as blood pressure and blood glucose levels; 3 identifying strengths and weakness of policies and practices and making a plan for improvement; and 4 responding to new and changing needs of students and school staff members.
Although evaluations should not be used to audit or rank schools or penalize school staff members , , evaluations can be used to motivate schools to make changes and monitor school-level implementation of school district, state, and federal policies. Two fundamental types of evaluation are process and outcome. In process evaluation, educators collect and analyze data to determine who, what, when, where, and how much of program activities have been conducted.
Process evaluation is the foundation of evaluation because it specifies the activities involved in policies, programs, and practices, and whether they were implemented as intended. In addition, process evaluation allows education agency staff members to assess how well a policy, program, or practice has been implemented and what strengths and improvements are necessary. Outcome evaluation explores whether intended outcomes or specific changes occur as a direct result of policies, programs, or practices.
Outcomes might include changes at the school level e. Outcome evaluation can require a great deal of time, money, and expertise, and individual schools are unlikely to be able to conduct outcome evaluations on their own. A full-fledged outcome evaluation might be beyond the reach of most schools and is more likely the purview of state and local education agencies. However, some outcome-related questions can be answered using simple methods available to most schools. Outcome evaluation can focus on short- or long-term outcomes of policies, programs, or practices, including changes in practices at the school level or changes in student knowledge, attitudes, skills, behaviors, or health outcomes. Conduct process evaluation of nutrition and physical activity policies and practices.
Schools should conduct a process evaluation of their healthy eating and physical activity policies and practices. Process evaluation topics for schools might include the following:. Conduct outcome evaluation of healthy eating and physical activity policies, programs, and practices. In addition to the process evaluation topics, schools might evaluate changes that occurred after a policy, program, or practice was implemented. Outcome evaluation topics include the following:. The Physical Activity Evaluation Handbook illustrates the six steps of program evaluation in the framework with physical activity program examples Understanding Evaluation: The Way to Better Prevention Programs describes evaluation activities that school districts and community agencies can use to assess various programs State and local education agencies and schools can consult with evaluators at universities, school districts, or state departments of education and health to identify methods and materials for evaluating their efforts.
The physical surroundings and psychosocial climate of a school should encourage all students to make healthy eating choices and be physically active. The physical environment includes the entire school building and the area surrounding it; facilities for physical activity, physical education, and food preparation and consumption; availability of food and physical activity options; and conditions such as temperature, air quality, noise, lighting, and safety The psychosocial environment includes the social norms established by policies and practices that influence the physical activity and eating behaviors of students and staff members Developing and maintaining a supportive school environment can improve the sustainability of healthy eating and physical activity policies and practices that support healthy lifestyles ,, Box 2.
Provide adequate and safe spaces and facilities for healthy eating. School nutrition services should serve healthy food in an environment that allows students to pay attention to what they are eating and enjoy social aspects of dining , Students can enjoy meal time more when they feel relaxed and are able to socialize without feeling rushed. Actions to support safe and healthy eating include. Other food environment activities, such as school gardens, school salad bars, and farm-to-school programs, can enrich the eating and educational experience by providing quality produce and opportunities for hands-on multidisciplinary learning In , the National School Lunch Act was amended with a provision encouraging institutions participating in the school lunch and breakfast programs "to purchase unprocessed agricultural products, both locally grown and locally raised, to the maximum extent practicable and appropriate" In addition to integrating local agriculture products, such as fruits, vegetables, and eggs, into the school cafeteria, farm-to-school activities include hands-on education through school garden programs and field trips to local farms, classroom nutrition education, and alternative fundraising using local produce School garden programs have the potential to strengthen the healthy development of students through improved knowledge about fruits and vegetables ,, , increased preference for fruits and vegetables ,, , and increased consumption of fruits and vegetables ,,, Schools also should ensure that students have access to safe, free, and well-maintained drinking water fountains or dispensers during school meals, as required by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act , as well as throughout the school day This provides a healthy alternative to sugar-sweetened beverages and can help increase students' overall water consumption , Ensure that spaces and facilities for physical activity meet or exceed recommended safety standards.
All spaces and facilities for physical activity, including playing fields, playgrounds, gymnasiums, swimming pools, multipurpose rooms, cafeterias, and fitness centers, should be regularly inspected and maintained, hazardous conditions should be corrected immediately, and a comprehensive safety assessment should be done at least annually , Regular inspection and maintenance of indoor and outdoor play surfaces should ensure that environmental safety devices are provided and maintained, including , Develop, teach, implement, and enforce safety rules. Safe physical activity requires proper conditioning and use of appropriate equipment where needed.
Dangerous behaviors e. Explicit safety rules should be taught to and followed by students in physical education, extracurricular physical activity programs, and community sports and recreation programs ,, Adult supervisors should consistently reinforce safety rules, which should be posted in key locations. One person, such as the school health coordinator or lead physical education teacher, should be responsible for ensuring that safety measures are in place and updated as needed , ; however, minimizing physical activity--related injuries and illnesses among children and adolescents is the joint responsibility of teachers, administrators, coaches, athletic trainers, school nurses, other school and community personnel, parents, and students , Maintain high levels of supervision during structured and unstructured physical activity programs.
Trained staff members or volunteers, including coaches, teachers, parents, paraprofessionals, and community members, should supervise all physical activity programs. Staff members should be aware of the potential for physical activity--related injuries and illnesses among students so that the risks for and consequences of these injuries and illnesses can be minimized. To prevent injuries during structured physical activity schools can. Children and adolescents also could be provided with, and required to use, protective clothing and equipment appropriate for the type of physical activity and the environment Protective clothing and equipment includes footwear appropriate for the specific activity; helmets for bicycling; helmets, face masks, mouth guards, and protective pads for football and ice hockey; shin guards for soccer; knee pads for in-line skating; and reflective clothing for walking and running.
As a general recommendation, all protective equipment should 1 be in good condition; 2 be inspected and maintained frequently; 3 be replaced if worn, damaged, or outdated; 4 provide a good fit for the athlete; and 5 be appropriate for the sport and position. In addition, children and adolescents need to be trained to use equipment correctly; this is particularly true of helmets To prevent injuries during unstructured play time, schools should consider implementing training sessions for staff members focusing on observation techniques, behavior management, appropriate supervision, and emergency response procedures Additional information that schools might want to integrate into training sessions can be found in the Consumer Product Safety Commission Handbook for Public Playground Safety In general, playground supervisors should 1 repetitively teach children playground rules; 2 prevent, recognize, and stop children's dangerous and risky behavior; 3 help children to identify, acknowledge, and prevent their risky behavior; and 4 model appropriate safety behavior , When possible, schools can support those supervising unstructured physical activity by following the National Program for Playground Safety NPPS recommendations that the playground supervision ratio of teachers to students be equal to the indoor classroom ratio Increase community access to school physical activity facilities.
Schools should provide community access to physical activity facilities, such as gymnasiums, tracks, baseball and softball fields, basketball courts, outdoor play areas, and indoor fitness centers during the school day and out-of-school time ,, Establishing a formal policy or agreement, such as a joint use agreement, between schools and community organizations can help increase student, family, and community access to physical activity facilities and programs. A joint use agreement is a policy that allows two or more entities e.
Joint use agreements provide details about the facilities to be shared, as well as scheduling, management, maintenance, and costs of the shared facilities. Roles, responsibilities, and liability terms also are typically outlined within joint use agreements Access to these facilities can help to increase visibility of schools, provide community members a safe place for physical activity, and might increase partnerships with community-based physical activity programs , Frequently, schools have the facilities but lack the personnel to deliver extracurricular physical activity programs.
Community resources can expand existing school programs by providing program staff members as well as intramural and club activities on school grounds. For example, community agencies and organizations can use school facilities for after-school physical fitness programs for students, weight management programs for overweight or obese students, and sports and recreation programs for students with disabilities or chronic health conditions.
Adopt marketing techniques to promote healthy dietary choices. Marketing techniques can be used to promote healthy foods and beverages among students. The following techniques have been used in schools to increase the likelihood of students choosing healthier foods and beverages:. Use student rewards that support health. Student achievement or positive classroom behavior should only be rewarded with nonfood items or activities.
The use of food as rewards, especially foods with little nutritional value, might increase the risk that children associate such foods with emotions, such as feelings of accomplishment , Providing food based on performance or behavior connects the experience of eating food to the student's perceptions and mood. Rewarding students with food during class also reinforces eating outside of meal or snack times.
This practice can encourage students to eat treats even when they are not hungry and instill lifetime habits of rewarding or comforting themselves with unhealthy eating, resulting in overconsumption of foods high in added sugar and fat Although few studies have examined the effect of using food rewards on students' long-term eating habits, the IOM Nutrition Standards for Foods in Schools report determined that such use of foods in schools is inappropriate because this practice establishes an emotional connection between foods and accomplishments.
When an extrinsic reward system is used, rewards should be nonfood items or activities e. Do not use physical activity as punishment. Teachers, coaches, and other school and community personnel should not use physical activity as punishment or withhold opportunities for physical activity as a form of punishment. Using physical activity as a punishment e. Exclusion from physical education or recess for bad behavior in a classroom deprives students of physical activity experiences that benefit health and can contribute toward improved behavior in the classroom , Disciplining students for unacceptable behavior or academic performance by not allowing them to participate in recess or physical education prevents students from 1 accumulating valuable free-time physical activity and 2 learning essential physical activity knowledge and skills.
Schools can take numerous steps to help shape a health-promoting psychological environment. For example, they can adopt and enforce a universal bullying prevention program that addresses weight discrimination and teasing ,, , ensure that students of all sizes are encouraged to participate in a wide variety of physical activities , display posters or other visual materials that feature a diverse combination of students being active and eating healthy, and avoid practices that single out students on the basis of body size or shape Schools should avoid elimination games such as dodge ball, bombardment, and elimination tag that limit opportunities for all students to be active School health, mental health, and social services staff members can play a key role in helping to communicate and promote these practices.
The school nutrition policy should ensure a safe environment for students with chronic health conditions. The policy should cover all venues where foods and beverages are available, during the regular and extended school day, and all families and staff members should be informed of the policy Nutrition service staff members should be provided with information and support to assist students who are on nutrition programs or diets prescribed by their health-care provider. USDA provides guidance on accommodating children with special dietary needs, supported by the USDA nondiscrimination regulation , allowing for substitutions or modifications in the National School Meals Program for children whose disabilities restrict their diet as certified by a licensed physician The school nutrition service staff members also should consider making food substitutions for students with food allergies, for students with food intolerances, or on a case-by-case basis for students who are medically certified as having a special medical dietary need The school environment should support students with disabilities and chronic health conditions in being physically active and making healthy eating choices.
A chronic health condition is defined as any illness, disease, disorder, or disability of long duration or frequent recurrence, including asthma, diabetes, serious allergies, epilepsy, and obesity Schools should establish policies that allow full participation by all students in physical activity, including extracurricular activities, and ensure access to preventive and quick-relief medications as indicated by a student's Individualized Health Care Plan, plan, Individualized Education Plan IEP , or all of these as appropriate , Coordination between health services staff members, special education, nutrition services staff members, and health and physical education staff members can help ensure that these policies are established.
Schools are in a unique position to promote healthy dietary behaviors and help ensure appropriate food and nutrient intake among their students. Many schools provide students with access to foods and beverages in various venues across the school campus, including meals served in the cafeteria as part of the federally reimbursable school meal program and competitive foods i.
Schools should model and reinforce healthy dietary behaviors by ensuring that only nutritious and appealing foods and beverages are provided in all venues accessible to students Box 3. Schools should provide students with access to breakfast, lunch, and other important programs e. A school meal program offers students the opportunity to apply knowledge and skills learned through nutrition education, can affect students' food choices by providing nutrient information of the foods available, and can encourage students to make healthy choices 98,, School districts and independent schools that choose to take part in the federal school meal programs receive cash reimbursements and entitlement funds for USDA Foods commodities , provided that the meals they serve meet federal requirements and that they offer free or reduced price lunches to eligible students.
Students who participate in school meal programs have been found to consume more milk, fruits, and vegetables and have better nutrient intake than those who do not participate , However, participants in the School Breakfast Program and National School Lunch Program also have higher sodium intake from school meals than those who do not participate Student participation in school meal programs, particularly breakfast, has been shown to be associated in the short term with improved student functioning on a broad range of psychosocial and academic measures 65, Studies of students who participated more often in school breakfast programs showed increases in test scores and significant decreases in the rates of school absence and tardiness compared with students whose participation remained the same or decreased 65, Encourage participation in school meal programs among all students.
In the school year, boys participated in the National School Lunch Program at a higher rate than girls, elementary school students participated at a higher rate than middle and high school students, students who were eligible for free and reduced-price meals participated at a higher rate than students who were not income eligible, rural students participated at a higher rate than urban students, and students whose parents did not attend college participated at a higher rate than those parents who did.
In the school year, boys participated in the School Breakfast Program at a higher rate than girls, non-Hispanic black students participated at a higher rate than Hispanic students and non-Hispanic white students, elementary school students participated at a higher rate than middle and high school students, students who were eligible for free and reduced-price meals participated at a higher rate than students who were not income eligible, students who spoke Spanish in the home participated at a higher rate than students who spoke English, and rural students participated at a higher rate than urban students All students are eligible to participate in the school meal program; however, schools receive a smaller reimbursement for students who exceed income limits than for students from low-income families.
Increased effort is needed to ensure that participation in a school meal program that complies with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans is promoted and supported. To encourage increased participation in school meal programs by all students, schools can use the following strategies:. The school meal program should provide various healthy, appetizing, and culturally appropriate choices to help students meet their nutritional needs.
Meals served in the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program must meet federally defined nutrition standards based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans for schools to be eligible for federal subsidies. Decisions about the specific foods to offer and how to prepare them are made by local school food authorities. The IOM report School Meals: Building Blocks for Healthy Children recommendations reflect current dietary guidance including increasing the requirements for fruits, vegetables and whole grains, requiring only fat-free and low-fat milk, and decreasing the amount of sodium and trans fat in school meals.
Schools also should take necessary action to prevent or minimize the risk for foodborne illness among participants in the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program. School food authorities are required to develop and implement a food safety program based on a hazard analysis critical control point system This law allows school food authorities to identify potential food hazards, identify critical points where hazards can be eliminated or minimized through control measures, and establish monitoring procedures and corrective action.
Ensure that meals meet federally defined nutrition standards. Schools have made considerable progress in meeting federal nutrition requirements for school meals. However, although three fourths of schools met the fat standards in school breakfasts, less than one third of schools met the standards for calories from fat or saturated fat in the average lunch For both breakfast and lunch, average levels of sodium were higher and fiber was lower than the Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendations School Challenge to create healthier food and beverage choices.
Schools that engage in the Healthier U. School Challenge commit to meeting specified criteria including stricter nutrition standards such as increasing the number of servings of whole-grain foods, dark green and orange vegetables, and dry beans and peas. School nutrition services staff members may modify menus to include healthier foods, such as serving more fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and offering a greater variety of low-fat foods, including fat-free and low-fat milk. Other ideas include serving foods such as salsas for fresh flavor and less fat; making reductions and substitutions, such as reducing salt and using low-fat mayonnaise and salad dressings; and preparing foods in different ways, such as baking rather than frying French fries or serving baked potatoes instead , Ensure that schools have kitchen facilities and equipment needed to cook quality, appealing meals.
Support should be provided to schools to upgrade kitchen facilities with state-of-the-art equipment, which can help ensure that school meals are appealing to children and that they are prepared using the most healthy cooking techniques and food products available. Serving baked instead of fried foods can make a substantial difference in the amount of calories, fat, and saturated fat that children consume. Ovens, instead of deep-fat fryers, are needed to bake fries, but not all schools have such equipment and need financial support to purchase these types of items ,, Outdated kitchen equipment, limited and inadequate kitchen facilities, and food budgets are substantial barriers for school nutrition staff members to provide healthy and appealing school meals , Recent trends associated with the need to update kitchen equipment in school nutrition programs include an increased emphasis on health and wellness, food security and emergency preparedness, smaller and more mobile equipment e.Evaluation can serve various purposes, including 1 improving Zero Tolerance Policies In High School content, support for, Zero Tolerance Policies In High School implementation of physical activity and healthy eating Zero Tolerance Policies In High School and practices; 2 documenting changes in the school environment, physical education and health education curricula, physical activity and healthy eating Zero Tolerance Policies In High School for students and school staff members, John Proctors Position In The Crucible activity and dietary habits, and health outcomes such as blood passion in life and Zero Tolerance Policies In High School glucose Zero Tolerance Policies In High School Persuasive Essay About High School Life identifying Zero Tolerance Policies In High School and weakness of policies Forensics: Ronald Cottons Unsolved Case practices and making a plan for improvement; and 4 responding to new and changing needs of students and school staff members. In Zero Tolerance Policies In High School last decade, a total of 39 states passed a law or policy addressing R V Mokrecovas Case Study foods and beverages in schools that was stronger than the current federal requirements. Dental Zero Tolerance Policies In High School is associated with Zero Tolerance Policies In High School and full-calorie Essay On The Difference Between Prison And Jail consumption 80,