⌛ Oedipus Rex, Ion, And The End Of The Dying World

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Oedipus Rex, Ion, And The End Of The Dying World



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Oedipus Rex by Sophocles - Summary \u0026 Analysis

Events after the revelation depend on the source. In Sophocles ' plays, Oedipus went in search of Jocasta and found she had killed herself. Using the pin from a brooch he took off Jocasta's gown, Oedipus blinded himself and was then exiled. His daughter Antigone acted as his guide as he wandered through the country, finally dying at Colonus where they had been welcomed by King Theseus of Athens. However, in Euripides ' plays on the subject, Jocasta did not kill herself upon learning of Oedipus's birth, and Oedipus was blinded by a servant of Laius. The blinding of Oedipus does not appear in sources earlier than Aeschylus. Some older sources of the myth, including Homer , state that Oedipus continued to rule Thebes after the revelations and after Jocasta's death.

Oedipus's two sons, Eteocles and Polynices , arranged to share the kingdom, each taking an alternating one-year reign. However, Eteocles refused to cede his throne after his year as king. Polynices brought in an army to oust Eteocles from his position and a battle ensued. At the end of the battle the brothers killed each other after which Jocasta's brother, Creon , took the throne. He decided that Polynices was a "traitor," and should not be given burial rites. Defying this edict, Antigone attempted to bury her brother.

In Sophocles' Antigone , Creon had her buried in a rock cavern for defying him, whereupon she hanged herself. However, in Euripides' lost version of the story, it appears that Antigone survives. Most, if not all, of our knowledge of Oedipus come from the 5th century BC. Though these stories principally deal with his downfall, various details still appear on how Oedipus rose to power. King Laius of Thebes hears of a prophecy that his infant son will one day kill him. A fight ensues, and Oedipus kills Laius and most of his guards. A plague falls on the people of Thebes. Upon discovering the truth, Oedipus blinds himself, and Jocasta hangs herself. Some differences with older stories emerge. The curse of Oedipus' sons was elaborated on retroactively to include Oedipus and his father, Laius.

Oedipus now steps down from the throne instead of dying in battle. Additionally, rather than his children being by a second wife, Oedipus's children are now by Jocasta hence, they are his brothers as well. In his second Olympian Ode , Pindar writes: [9]. Laius' tragic son, crossing his father's path, killed him and fulfilled the oracle spoken of old at Pytho. And sharp-eyed Erinys saw and slew his warlike children at each other's hands.

Yet Thersandros survived fallen Polyneikes and won honor in youthful contests and the brunt of war, a scion of aid to the house of Adrastos. In BC, the Athenian playwright, Aeschylus , most notably wrote a trilogy based on the myth of Oedipus, winning him the first prize at the City Dionysia. Of the plays, Laius was the first, Oedipus was second , and Seven Against Thebes was the third play and the only one to have survived. Much like his Oresteia , the trilogy would have detailed the tribulations of a House over three successive generations.

The satyr play that followed the trilogy was called The Sphinx. All three plays concern the fate of the City of Thebes , during and after the reign of King Oedipus, [10] and have often been published under a single cover. Originally, Sophocles had written the plays for three separate festival competitions , many years apart. Not only are the Theban plays not a true trilogy three plays presented as a continuous narrative , they are not even an intentional series and contain some inconsistencies among them.

Sophocles also wrote other plays focused on Thebes, most notably the Epigoni , of which only fragments have survived. As Sophocles ' Oedipus Rex begins, the people of Thebes are begging the king for help, begging him to discover the cause of the plague. Oedipus stands before them and swears to find the root of their suffering and to end it. Just then, Creon returns to Thebes from a visit to the oracle. Apollo has made it known that Thebes is harbouring a terrible abomination and that the plague will only be lifted when the true murderer of old King Laius is discovered and punished for his crime.

Oedipus swears to do this, not realizing that he is himself the culprit. The stark truth emerges slowly over the course of the play, as Oedipus clashes with the blind seer Tiresias , who senses the truth. Oedipus remains in strict denial, though, becoming convinced that Tiresias is somehow plotting with Creon to usurp the throne. Realization begins to slowly dawn in Scene II of the play when Jocasta mentions out of hand that Laius was slain at a place where three roads meet. This stirs something in Oedipus's memory and he suddenly remembers the men that he fought and killed one day long ago at a place where three roads met.

He realizes, horrified, that he might be the man he's seeking. One household servant survived the attack and now lives out his old age in a frontier district of Thebes. Oedipus sends immediately for the man to either confirm or deny his guilt. At the very worst, though, he expects to find himself to be the unsuspecting murderer of a man unknown to him. The truth has not yet been made clear. The moment of epiphany comes late in the play.

At the beginning of Scene III, Oedipus is still waiting for the servant to be brought into the city, when a messenger arrives from Corinth to declare that King Polybus of Corinth is dead. Oedipus, when he hears this news, feels much relieved, because he believed that Polybus was the father whom the oracle had destined him to murder, and he momentarily believes himself to have escaped fate. He tells this all to the present company, including the messenger, but the messenger knows that it is not true. He is the man who found Oedipus as a baby in the pass of Cithaeron and gave him to King Polybus to raise. He reveals, furthermore that the servant who is being brought to the city as they speak is the very same man who took Oedipus up into the mountains as a baby.

Jocasta realizes now all that has happened. She begs Oedipus not to pursue the matter further. He refuses, and she withdraws into the palace as the servant is arriving. The old man arrives, and it is clear at once that he knows everything. At the behest of Oedipus, he tells it all. Overwhelmed with the knowledge of all his crimes, Oedipus rushes into the palace where he finds his mother-wife, dead by her own hand. Ripping a brooch from her dress, Oedipus blinds himself with it.

Bleeding from the eyes, he begs his uncle and brother-in-law Creon, who has just arrived on the scene, to exile him forever from Thebes. Creon agrees to this request. Oedipus begs to hold his two daughters Antigone and Ismene with his hands one more time to have their eyes fill of tears and Creon out of pity sends the girls in to see Oedipus one more time. He finally finds refuge at the holy wilderness right outside Athens, where it is said that Theseus took care of Oedipus and his daughter, Antigone. Creon eventually catches up to Oedipus. He asks Oedipus to come back from Colonus to bless his son, Eteocles.

Angry that his son did not love him enough to take care of him, he curses both Eteocles and his brother, condemning them both to kill each other in battle. Oedipus dies a peaceful death; his grave is said to be sacred to the gods. In Sophocles' Antigone , when Oedipus stepped down as king of Thebes, he gave the kingdom to his two sons, Eteocles and Polynices , both of whom agreed to alternate the throne every year.

However, they showed no concern for their father, who cursed them for their negligence. After the first year, Eteocles refused to step down and Polynices attacked Thebes with his supporters as portrayed in the Seven Against Thebes by Aeschylus and the Phoenician Women by Euripides. The two brothers killed each other in battle. King Creon , who ascended to the throne of Thebes, decreed that Polynices was not to be buried. Antigone , Polynices' sister, defied the order, but was caught. Creon decreed that she was to be put into a stone box in the ground, this in spite of her betrothal to his son Haemon. Antigone's sister, Ismene , then declared she had aided Antigone and wanted the same fate, but Creon eventually declined executing her.

The gods, through the blind prophet Tiresias , expressed their disapproval of Creon's decision, which convinced him to rescind his order, and he went to bury Polynices himself. However, Antigone had already hanged herself in her tomb, rather than suffering the slow death of being buried alive. When Creon's wife, Eurydice , was informed of the death of Haemon, she too took her own life. In the beginning of Euripides ' Phoenissae , Jocasta recalls the story of Oedipus. Generally, the play weaves together the plots of the Seven Against Thebes and Antigone. The play differs from the other tales in two major respects. First, it describes in detail why Laius and Oedipus had a feud: Laius ordered Oedipus out of the road so his chariot could pass, but proud Oedipus refused to move.

In Chrysippus , Euripides develops backstory on the curse: Laius' sin was to have kidnapped Chrysippus, Pelops ' son, in order to violate him, and this caused the gods' revenge on all his family. Laius was the tutor of Chrysippus, and raping his student was a severe violation of his position as both guest and tutor in the house of the royal family hosting him at the time.

Extant vases show a fury hovering over the lecherous Laius as he abducts the rape victim. Euripides wrote also an Oedipus , of which only a few fragments survive. At some point in the action of the play, a character engaged in a lengthy and detailed description of the Sphinx and her riddle — preserved in five fragments from Oxyrhynchus , P. The most striking lines, however, state that in this play Oedipus was blinded by Laius' attendants, and that this happened before his identity as Laius' son had been discovered, therefore marking important differences with the Sophoclean treatment of the myth, which is now regarded as the 'standard' version.

Some echoes of the Euripidean Oedipus have been traced also in a scene of Seneca's Oedipus see below , in which Oedipus himself describes to Jocasta his adventure with the Sphinx. At least three other 5th-century BC authors who were younger than Sophocles wrote plays about Oedipus. These include Achaeus of Eretria , Nichomachus and the elder Xenocles. The Bibliotheca , a Roman-era mythological handbook, includes a riddle for the Sphinx, borrowing the poetry of Hesiod :. What is that which has one voice and yet becomes four-footed and two-footed and three-footed? Due to the popularity of Sophocles's Antigone c. Oedipus was a figure who was also used in the Latin literature of ancient Rome. Julius Caesar wrote a play on Oedipus, but it has not survived into modern times.

He makes no mention of Oedipus's troubled experiences with his father and mother. Seneca the Younger wrote his own play on the story of Oedipus in the first century AD. It differs in significant ways from the work of Sophocles. Some scholars have argued that Seneca's play on the myth was intended to be recited at private gatherings and not actually performed. It has however been successfully staged since the Renaissance.

But Sir Macduff and King Malcom were able to flee in the nick of the time before Macbeth got his hands on them. Macbeth, a man with no mercy towards children and women. Moreover, there had been rumours that the death of Banquo and the attempt to murder his son, Fleance, are all connected to Macbeth. Banquo has been murdered right after he left the castle of Dunsinane. He then set off and conquered Egypt, the Persian Empire, and won a hard battle against India before his troops forced him to return home.

Alexander then died at the age of Most people see Alexander as Great because he conquered a lot of land, built a massive empire, and was a military genius, but Alexander was not so great. Alexander the Great did not deserve his title as Great because he gained his power by fear, killed innocent. His death was not of great betrayal. He also betrayed hamlet his nephew by one killing his father and second taking the throne from him when it was rightfully his. Because of his betrayal many more thing happened because of it and many people got hurt because of. Caligula died without an heir but his uncle, Claudius, had bribed the Praetorian Guard to support him in his ambition to be proclaimed as princeps.

The Praetorian Guard had a lot to lose if they did not support him, so he was confirmed as princeps, high priest, and emperor days after the death of Caligula. Claudius had his wife, Messalina, executed after the discovery of her affair with another man and her part in a plot against him. He then married his niece Agrippina and adopted her son by a previous. Show More. Lucius Caesetius Flavus Character Analysis Words 4 Pages After stripping Flavus of his title of Tribune of the Plebs, he asked his father to disown him, because he had two other more successful sons, but he refused. Read More.

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