✍️✍️✍️ High Speed Rail Research Paper

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High Speed Rail Research Paper

The Company has come a long way from its High Speed Rail Research Paper in High Speed Rail Research Paper, apart from India, has operated High Speed Rail Research Paper 62 countries. Watson et al. The High Speed Rail Research Paper Aerospace Centre also High Speed Rail Research Paper a holistic research approach in order to counter the current declining High Speed Rail Research Paper share in rail freight transport and overcome the above-mentioned key problems. People may also work for several companies instead of High Speed Rail Research Paper one, and may change their activity within a short High Speed Rail Research Paper of time. Reality has disproved their Chipotle Core Competencies in the best possible way.

How China built the best high-speed rail ever

Advocates argue that by increasing the number of cities that have HSR hubs, the network effect will geometrically multiply the utility of HSR to travelers, and hence will provide long-term economic and lifestyle benefits for all citizens. It is not clear whether developing HSR between some U. The HSR deployments in California will be watched closely by government and business leaders in other U. Despite the increases in projected costs, support for high-speed rail among Californians remains high. Competition with other technologies. Technologies such as magnetic levitation maglev and hyperloop are promising ever faster rail speeds. The line covers 30 km 19 miles in seven minutes. China is currently one of only three countries along with Japan and South Korea that operate a maglev train.

Hyperloop systems, which involve propelling trains through sealed tubes that have been emptied of as much air as possible to reduce air resistance, are still on the drawing board. Maglev and hyperloop systems both require the construction of all new rail lines, which calls into question further investment in more conventional HSR technologies. Nevertheless, advocates point out that HSR is a mature technology, unlike these other rail transport schemes, and so is a much lower risk investment for governments and urban planners. Both maglev and hyperloop are very costly, and pose potential health and safety risks that conventional HSR does not. HSR advocates further argue that the throughput in terms of numbers of people moved from place to place for a given investment provided by high-speed rail far outpaces those provided by highways or airports.

In the chart to the left, the US High Speed Rail Association depicts how high-speed rail offers significant time savings compared with flying or driving between downtown San Francisco and downtown Los Angeles in California. Transportation benefits. Many would argue that economic development should not be the main measure of a transportation system, but that its ability to move people and goods should be the primary consideration. That is how highway and airport projects are evaluated. Every country that builds HSR does so for the high capacity, sustainable mobility it delivers, first and foremost, with economic development and better safety as beneficial side effects.

Energy savings. Reducing the number of cars on roads and highways translates into big energy savings and a reduced demand for oil. According to International Union of Railways UIC data, high-speed rail is more than four times as energy efficient as driving in cars and nearly nine times more efficient than flying. Environmental considerations. High-speed rail clearly offers a path to lower greenhouse gas emissions than other modes of transportation. If HSR services can entice people out of their cars by offering convenience and speed at a low cost, this would significantly reduce societal energy consumption and carbon emissions.

In addition, CHSRA estimates that starting in , the state will see a reduction of 93 to flights daily, which translates into improved air quality and improved health, along with the economic benefits of a more energy-efficient transportation system. In many countries, laws and policies are already in place requiring businesses and consumers to reduce their emissions, and a consensus toward those trends is emerging over time. High-speed rail can offer the triple bottom line economic, social and environmental sustainability that many policymakers have called for over the years. Author: Richard Nunno. Table of Contents. Credit: Bernese media. Approved but not started construction.

A dramatic reduction of the car capital cost has to be factored in from this point on. In summary, the rail capital production factor is not very flexible i. It is even more difficult or expensive in the long term because it supposes a major change in the production function. Considering the industrial aspect of the capital, rail is expected to improve its productivity much less in relative terms than air and road because the industrial market sizes are not of the same magnitude of order: Rail train set manufacturing is a very small industry compared with the aircraft and car industries.

As predicted by some well-known economists such as Rifkin [2] and Anderson [3], we are moving toward a society that is governed by very low marginal costs because of the digital revolution and the prevalence of the economy of "data" above the economy of the "atom. However, the prospects for rail are not discouraging, because HSR still owns a capital capability that outranks the other transport modes: the transport capacity. Within the infrastructure surface of the ground, rail including HSR is the only mode capable of handling very high traffic flows.

Even an Airbus cannot match the capacity of an HS train composed of two train sets and offering more than seats. Japanese double-decker trains can hold roughly seats and future train sets, which will be ordered by French National Railway Company SNCF , once coupled, will reach a similar capacity. Therefore, drawing on being a mass transport system is the best strategy while dealing with the capital production factor of HSR Asset 4. Nevertheless, the rail capacity remains strongly governed by the number of trains running, on the same track, at. So far, no project is as ambitious as the HS2 High Speed Line, which is designed for 18 trains an hour running at the commercial speed of km-h Should this aim be reached in the expected infrastructure commissioning date , it remains an ultimate limit because railway is a low-grip transport mode.

If its low-grip characteristic allows the hauling of very heavy loads with a minimum energy effort, it has a downside: The braking of a train requires a much longer distance than a vehicle with rubber wheels on tarmac does. Rethinking rail safety and signaling systems in order to outperform this constraint should be a possible lead for research programs. When it comes down to the labor production factor, onboard staff productivity is increased with speed since staff is paid by the hour, and the longer the distance run in one hour the better. Once the speed is set at a given value, onboard productivity can only be increased by driverless trains or by providing fewer onboard services.

The first option should be considered since HSR is a guided system, keeping in mind that driverless cars, which are not guided, are now under experimentation and are part of the foreseeable future. In addition, such a change would probably positively affect the track capacity, which is an even more important objective. Providing the client with fewer onboard services is the strategy followed by low-cost airline companies, and now by SNCF with its Ouigo trains on specific markets. If this strategy allows better resistance on a very competing market, the average revenue per passenger diminishes. Labor productivity has already been strongly improved in the commercial area by partially and sometimes exclusively relying on the Internet distribution channel.

However, this approach is now already used for the other transport modes. Finally, the last remaining labor productivity field is system maintenance and cleaning. A balance must be found between a low-maintenance system with many redundancies requiring higher acquisition costs and a more high-maintenance system that would probably be cheaper in capital terms. The trend is in favor of the first option, since reliability and availability are to be factored in with a high coefficient. In conclusion, there is no evidence of a strong potential increase of a future labor productivity factor for HSR, except if the staff management rules and regulations can be made more flexible. Therefore, barring any major change in the automation of train driving or in staff regulations, the marginal labor productivity will remain unchanged at a low level.

By contrast, the car production function is likely to improve, because carpooling means that the driver's cost as well as the car maintenance costs are shared or at least divided by a factor of two , aside from the perspective of driverless cars, for which car use will be much more intensive and shared by many users. In competitive terms, the car will be a stronger competitor than it is today for the train. However, there is a silver lining with car improvements, because the more automatized the car, the better for access and egress trips to and from stations for passengers during their door-to-door trip.

Therefore, although not many expectations should be laid on the productivity of the rail labor production factor, it is possible to build on the car breakthroughs in order to facilitate the first and the last mile of the rail passenger. Considering a wider perspective, labor is about to change its nature. Thus far, most employed people have been on the payroll of firms in factories or office buildings. Now, however, there is a trend toward self-employment, with people wanting to master. People may also work for several companies instead of only one, and may change their activity within a short period of time.

These new kinds of jobs are an alternative to wage earning that is more flexible than conventional working conditions and contracts. Thus far, rail companies have not shown much ability to open to such changes in the labor force; for example, public companies are slow in adopting teleworking. In the long term, such an inertia on the labor market may change rail competitiveness [4]. Its low environmental impact has always been a highlighted quality of rail, including HSR, although higher speeds require more energy consumption. The reason for rail's environmental sustainability is its energy efficiency, which outperforms the other transport modes, as shown in Fig. Even in non-European countries with less nuclear electricity, for example, the ranking of the transport modes should remain the same.

However, here also, the competition is making big strides toward better energy efficiency, so rail should not rest on its laurels. Of course, the main change will be in the car powering source. There is no doubt that cars powered by gasoline will be progressively replaced by cars powered by hydrogen [5,6]. Hydrogen is the most common atom in the universe and is an inexhaustible source of energy, since it is present in water and can be separated from oxygen using electricity by electrolysis. The electricity needed for this process can be produced whenever available with solar panels, windmills, or nuclear power plants , since hydrogen is the way to stock it.

Then, using a fuel cell, the hydrogen combines with oxygen to form water, leaving nothing more as pollution. In other words, the future car, perhaps at the horizon, will be a hydrogen, non-polluting car, because its fuel hydrogen will mainly be produced using the sun's energy. Some firms [7] are already providing the market with a simplified low-investment distribution system based on hydrogen cartridges that can be inserted in sockets aboard vehicles. Thus far, it is difficult to imagine HSR powered by fuel cells. The HSR requires an amount of energy and power that can only be delivered through the nationwide high voltage grid.

Moving years into the future, the handicap created by the environmental impact of the car the most important competition for the train will be resolved by hydrogen technology. Energy efficiency of various transport modes based on European average values. Traffic units carried number of passengers x km for one unit of energy kilo-equivalent of petro, kep. Therefore, if Asset 5 is to remain a strong quality of rail, it will no longer be a competitive advantage versus the car. For this reason, it is essential to continue to improve rail efficiency and to grasp any new opportunities to obtain better energy autonomy by producing electricity, building on the vast domain that is covered by rail facilities.

For example, many square meters of rail stations particularly the marquees covering platforms could be covered with solar panels so as to fuel the future electricity smart grids Fig. All that remains is the last production factor: the data. Although one might try to estimate the labor and the capital needs to gather and organize the data, this will not lead to a correct estimate of its value because there is no direct correlation between the data acquisition cost and the data strategic value. There are at least two ways to get a vision of the data value, and both should be considered attentively by the HSR sector.

The first way is to consider the power data gives to some actors, who aim at playing a role between the final client and the rail operator. This role is called "intermediation" [8]. Thus, a client wanting to book a trip by rail will prefer to use an external to the rail sector application rather than the railway website itself, because he or she is already used to such an application for other purposes, or because that application is easier to access and compute. In this case, the application operator may try to give its customer provider a role, in order to get a percentage on the sales.

GAFA Google, Apple, Facebook, and Amazon and the like tend to work this way while providing the customer with free information services. Of course, rail operators are at risk, since they lose direct contact with their customers. Therefore, the value of gathering data is quite crucial and goes far beyond the cost of capturing client details, as many carriers do. It is also the only way to commit the customer to a loyalty program with rewards if the traveler often travels with the company. The second way data can be considered regards security.

Society is threatened more and more by cyberattacks, which endanger operations; and not only cyberattacks, but also malevolent actions up to terrorism. Several large terrorist actions have occurred in Europe. Not only have they damaged the rail image and cause a loss in revenues e. For example, Thalys has been driven to install security gates at the entrance of the corresponding platforms. Customers have to arrive in advance and are fenced off until they are allowed.

Regardless of the cost of these equipment and their operations, this constraint affects modal choice because the time spent in the station is longer; as a result, rail loses part of its door-to-door advantage versus air. Of course, this aspect threatens collective transport modes much more than it does private ones [9]. Once again, an asset Asset 6 is diminished, since the safety advantage may be counterbalanced by a loss of security due to collective transport modes being vulnerable to terrorism.

To conclude, the assets that have assisted the development of HSR still contribute to the commercial success of this transport mode. However, HSR is not invincible or invulnerable and its assets cannot be regarded as permanent, particularly in relative terms, because the competing modes are making progress and may sometimes outrun HSR on its own ground. This is particularly true regarding the environmental qualities of rail and the vulnerability to security of collective transport modes that are being challenged by the car. In addition, the rail production function is not very flexible and therefore may not be reactive enough in the competition landscape where both the air and the car sectors, due to the size of their industrial markets, prove to be very innovative.

The best way to maintain a leading position on the medium-distance market trip is, of course, to internally optimize productivity, as well as taking. In particular, access to and egress from the station can be strongly improved by the new car business model. Finally, the one HSR asset that should never be challenged is its capacity. There is, so far, no mode to surpass rail when it comes to moving heavy flows of people over short and medium distances. The third industrial revolution: how lateral power is transforming energy, the economy, and the world.

London: Palgrave Macmillan; The zero marginal cost society: the internet of things, the collaborative commons, and the eclipse of capitalism. New York: St. Martin's Press; Paris: Eyrolles; Hydrogen energy stations: along the roadside to the hydrogen economy. Util Pol ;13 1 Revue Management Avenir ;1 51 CC BY. Similar topics of scientific paper in Social and economic geography , author of scholarly article — Michel Leboeuf A multidimensional examination of performances of HSR High-Speed Rail systems. This dynamism is based on six quite strong assets: Asset 1: The mobility market has been constantly growing. Asset 4: HSR is a mass transport system. Asset 5: HSR is environmentally friendly. Asset 6: HSR is reliable and safe. Air transport, the most commonly Fig.

Worldwide high-speed rail HSR route length. No, that is not the obvious cause; when rail was operated with conventional rail, although it was cheaper than air, it did not hold the major 0 Travel time min Fig. Rail market share according to the best rail travel time. Typical door-to-door trips between Marseille and Paris by rail and by air. Market shares on the medium-distance trip market in France. Outside Europe, where the decision was taken to split the rail sector into infrastructure management and train operation, the marginal cost in terms of capital is roughly limited to the rolling stock, that is, the fleet of train sets. High-speed HS rolling stock fleet number of train sets in HSR fleet size number of train sets extension in 20 years.

Nevertheless, the rail capacity remains strongly governed by the number of trains running, on the same track, at Fig. Airplane orders and deliveries by Airbus and Boeing.

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