➊ Education During The Cold War
Connect with John on Twitter. Record of meeting between N. Public opinion on the Korean War, Education During The Cold War, Memorandum on recent Eyes On The Street Analysis, Education During The Cold War 2, Participation in the International Refugee Education During The Cold War, July 1, It Education During The Cold War a growing national sense that U. Thus, the Cold War Personal Narrative: My Experience Of Racism are connected with the spread of ideological conflict caused Education During The Cold War the emergence of the new power in the marks and spencer target audience th century Warner
What Was the Cold War?
Incarceration rates were significantly lower in the territory of Hawaii, where Japanese Americans made up over one-third of the population and their labor was needed to sustain the economy. However, martial law had been declared in Hawaii immediately following the Pearl Harbor attack, and the Army issued hundreds of military orders, some applicable only to persons of Japanese ancestry.
In the internment camps, four or five families, with their sparse collections of clothing and possessions, shared tar-papered army-style barracks. Most lived in these conditions for nearly three years or more until the end of the war. Gradually some insulation was added to the barracks and lightweight partitions were added to make them a little more comfortable and somewhat private. Life took on some familiar routines of socializing and school. However, eating in common facilities, using shared restrooms, and having limited opportunities for work interrupted other social and cultural patterns. Persons who resisted were sent to a special camp at Tule Lake, California, where dissidents were housed. In and the government assembled a combat unit of Japanese Americans for the European theater.
Their military record bespoke their patriotism. As the war drew to a close, internment camps were slowly evacuated. While some persons of Japanese ancestry returned to their hometowns, others sought new surroundings. For example, the Japanese-American community of Tacoma, Washington, had been sent to three different centers; only 30 percent returned to Tacoma after the war. Japanese Americans from Fresno had gone to Manzanar; 80 percent returned to their hometown. The internment of persons of Japanese ancestry during World War II sparked constitutional and political debate. During this period, three Japanese-American citizens challenged the constitutionality of the relocation and curfew orders through legal actions: Gordon Hirabayashi, Fred Korematsu, and Mitsuye Endo.
Hirabayashi and Korematsu received negative judgments; but Mitsuye Endo, after a lengthy battle through lesser courts, was determined to be "loyal" and allowed to leave the Topaz, Utah, facility. One of the most stunning ironies in this episode of American civil liberties was articulated by an internee who, when told that the Japanese were put in those camps for their own protection, countered "If we were put there for our protection, why were the guns at the guard towers pointed inward, instead of outward? Materials created by the National Archives and Records Administration are in the public domain.
Top Skip to main content. Memorandum for the President: summary of the discussion at the 16th meeting of the National Security Council on Berlin, July 23, Summaries of meetings of President Harry S. The summaries touch on tension in Berlin, negotiations with the USSR and related international developments. Top Secret report, dated July 28, , titled "U. Secretary of Defense to the National Security Council.
The memo, from the President's Secretary's Files, theorizes that the USSR agreed to negotiate over Germany in order to ease international tension and gain strategic advantages over Western powers. The analysis includes a discussion of possible outcomes of the negotiations. Truman, blaming George C. The telegram, from the Official File, also suggests that the US should maintain a presence in Berlin until an agreement can be negotiated. Letter of Transmittal to the U. Congress no date page 1 , letter from John Miles to William J. Hopkins, August 26, page 2 , memo from William J. Hopkins to John Miles, August 31, page 3. Memorandum, dated August 30, , from Charles E.
Bohlen to the U. Secretary of State, summarizing developments in negotiations on the occupation of Berlin between the three Western powers and the Soviet Union. Top secret communications, from General Clay to Omar Bradley, concerning the downing of British passenger airplane, which crashed with a fighter airplane driven by fight happy Soviet pilot. The communications, from the President's Secretary's Files, are not dated and discuss circumstances surrounding the crash, the fact that two American lives were lost, and how to handle the situation politically and in terms of future passenger flights. Truman to audience at Toledo, Ohio. Truman, notifying Truman of a pending speech, in which Thomas says that he will propose that the US government put before the United Nations General Assembly the actions, in Berlin and elsewhere, by which the USSR menaces peace in the world.
Truman, charging that the Berlin Crisis is, "an outgrowth of your own incredible stupidity. Truman to audience at Dexter, Iowa. The note accuses the Soviet Government of reneging on negotiated agreements aimed at resolving the Berlin Crisis and pledges to refer the actions of the Soviet Government to the United Nations Security Council. Department of State, no date. Telegram, dated September 27, , by U. Department of State, to President Harry S. Truman, aboard the Presidential Special. The telegram, from the Papers of Clark M.
Truman, asking Truman to clarify the magnitude of the crisis in Berlin. Copy No. The document, from the President's Secretary's Files, predicts that if talks break down the USSR will try to force a US withdrawal from Berlin and extend its dominance over the occupied city. Letter, dated September 28, , by U. Air Force Colonel R. Landry to Presidential secretary Matthew J. In the letter, from the Official File, Landry writes that he saw nothing on his trip to Berlin worth immediately reporting to President Harry S. Official U. Department of State summaries of foreign diplomatic telegrams on the Berlin Crisis, dated October 1, through October 19, Major Harry R.
President Harry Truman, in a whistle-stop campaign speech, blasts a know-nothing, do-nothing Congress, Elizabeth, New Jersey, October 7, Statement, dated October 9, , by President Harry S. Truman following General Marshall's return from Paris. The statement relates in general terms the tenor of Marshall's report to him on progress in the United Nations concerning the Berlin Crisis.
Three memoranda, dated October 13, , October 21, , and November 4, , and a letter dated November 10, The first memorandum mentions that President Harry S. The second memorandum recaps a number of events related to the situation in Berlin, including authorization for additional "C type" aircraft to be used as part of the Berlin Airlift. The third memorandum relates to a congratulatory telegram from M. Truman on his election victory. The final document, a letter from Joseph C. Truman to audience at Indianapolis, Indiana. Truman to audience at Scranton, Pennsylvania. Truman to audience at Johnstown, Pennsylvania. Letter attached are President Harry S. Truman's notes for a stop at Mr.
Dubinsky's reviewing stand , dated October 23, , from Samuel I. Rosenman to President Harry S. Telegram, dated October 27, , by Congressman Preston E. Peden to President Harry S. Truman, urging Truman to act in removing the Berlin blockade and sending supplies into occupied Berlin. Department of State summaries of foreign diplomatic telegrams on the Berlin Crisis, dated October 28, through December 6, Speech in St.
Louis, Mo. Truman to audience at St. Handwritten notes with introductory memo for an election-eve radio speech, dated November 1, , from President Harry S. Telegram, dated November 13, , by U. General Assembly President Herbert V. Evatt to President Harry S. The communication urges the President to implement a U. Telegram, dated November 14, , by U. Truman, forwarding text of a letter from United Nations officials noting that the on November 3, , the United Nations General Assembly adopted an appeal to the USSR, France, Britain, and the US, to renew efforts to settle their differences and establish a lasting peace.
The letter warns that the conflict over Berlin threatens the peace and security of all nations. Telegram, dated November 17, , by J. Frank, et. Memo from George C. McGhee to William J. Hopkins, December 1, Williams, November 23, , with attached letter to Mr. Hoffman, December 2, ". Letter, dated December 4, , by Arthur B. Baer to President Harry S. Truman, suggesting that the Berlin situation be reconciled under the auspices of the United Nations. Baer suggests that the U. Hassett to Baer. Memo from President Truman to Congress regarding the fifth quarterly report, December 6, Department of State summaries of foreign diplomatic telegrams on the Berlin Crisis, dated December 13, Department of State summaries of foreign diplomatic telegrams on the Berlin Crisis, dated December 17, through March 9, Department of State Office of Public Affairs background memorandum briefing press officers on the historical background of the Berlin Crisis.
The document, dated January 7, , is not for public release but rather for use by press officers in answering questions concerning the Berlin situation. Cover letter and message from Dr. Harry Truman's Inaugural Address, 20 January March 18, Department of State summaries of foreign diplomatic telegrams on the Berlin Crisis, dated March 22, Department of State summaries of foreign diplomatic telegrams on the Berlin Crisis, dated March 28, Department of State summaries of foreign diplomatic telegrams on the Berlin Crisis, dated April 5, and June 7, Truman to The Press.
State Department transcript, dated April 13, , of a press and radio news conference at which Secretary of State Dean Acheson attempts to clarify the nature of an agreement among foreign ministers regarding fusion of the three zones in Germany and how that agreement fits in with formation of a German government. Statement, dated May 3, , by President Harry S. Truman upon acceding to General Lucius Clay's request to be discharged from service in the U. Military Government in Germany, following the agreement to lift the Berlin blockade. Truman thanks Clay and praises his character and abilities.
Giangreco and Robert E. Griffin, The document, from the Official File, includes the original, untranslated version of the letter. Benjamin O. Foreign Policy," International Organization , Vol. Department of State summaries of foreign diplomatic telegrams on the Berlin Crisis, dated June 22, Department of State. Humelsine to Matthew J. Memorandum by the Chief of Staff, U. Extract from the indictment of Mr. Friedman, ca. September Atomic Explosion in the U. Vandenberg, September 26, ". Department of State summaries of foreign diplomatic telegrams on the Berlin Crisis, dated October 20, Hoffman, Economic Cooperation Administrator, on European recovery.
Soviet Misinterpretaton of U. Lewis Strauss to Harry S. Truman supporting the development of the thermonuclear bomb, November 25, Excerpt. Mao's Moscow Visit, December February Oral History, U. Clifford, to President Harry S. Statement by President Harry S. Truman on the Hydrogen Bomb, January 31, President Truman's letter to James S. Paul Y. Crocker II to the Department of State. Department of State Airgram from Dean Acheson.
Wells to the Department of State. Prestige and Demonstrating Communist Fallacies," June 5, Grady to the Department of State. Kirk to the Department of State. Lager to the Department of State. Michael M. Journal of Cold War Studies 83 Summer : Novelist William Faulkner accepts the Nobel Prize speaking of the difficulties of being an artist in the nuclear age, Stockholm, Sweden, Dec. Brewer to the Department of State. Memorandum, dated January 8, , by Donald S. Truman, to Secretary of Defense George C. Memorandum by John Paton Davies, Jr. Webb to James S. Lay, Jr.
Memorandum by Eben A. Ayers, "The Atomic Bomb," ca. Ayers, beginning "In outlining the history Memorandum on the secret meeting with General Eisenhower on the state of European defense, dated February 6, , by George M. Elsey to President Harry S. Porter to Frederick Awalt. United States Consulate General. Department of State Report. February 21, Letter, dated February 24, , by Dwight D. Eisenhower to President Harry S.
Memorandum, March 9, , by William D. Hassett , Secretary to President Harry S. Truman, to Col. Memorandum from C. Cabell to B. Memorandum, dated March 29, , by W. Harriman to Rose A. Stephen Pizzo , The Rosenberg Communiques. Morton Sobell , " Venona and the Rosenbergs ," Recall of General Douglas Macarthur General Douglas MacArthur condemns the "blackmail" of appeasement and bids the nation farewell, Washington , D. Analysis from Stephen Penrose to the Department of State. Eddy to Dorothy Thompson. Nitze and Matthews," 13 September Abbey to the Department of State. Barrett to George Cameron. University of Michigan. Letter from Victor Weybright to Edward W.
United States. McGhee to H. Freeman Matthews. Barrett to Victor Weybright. Department of State Airgram from James E. Webb to the United States Embassy, Iran. PBS, Race for the Superbomb. United States Consulate. Mashhad Iran Cable to the Department of State. Telegram from Mao Zedong to I. United States Legation. Lebanon Memorandum from John H. Bruins [Influencing Public Opinion], February 26, Franklin Michigan. Chamber of Commerce Letter from S. Vaughan to the Department of State. Department of State Transcript. National Security Council. Executive Secretary Report to the United States. Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. Also present: Harvey Mansfield, August 20, Hart to Max Bishop.
September 5, Propaganda Program in Iran], September 6, Objectives], September 7, Notes on Interview with Richard M. Bissell, Jr. Correspondence between Paul G. Harriman's secretary, October 1, McWilliams to William H. Draper, Jr. Memorandum from President Harry S. Presidential candidate Dwight D. I nterview with General George C. Marshall on the Marshall Plan. Others present: Harry B. Price and Roy E. Foulke , October 30, Funkhouser to Parker T.
Memo from Greek Ambassador Athanase G. Simmons to Matthew J. Politis, November 14, ; Memo from William J. Hopkins to John F. Simmons, November 21, Public Opinion on Iran," November 10, Donald Wilber. Ortiz to the Department of State. Department of State Memorandum from Wilson S. Compton to David K. Interview with Mr. Paul Hoffman on the Marshall Plan, January 28, Office of Near Eastern Affairs Memorandum. Cable from James B. Conant to the Secretary of State regarding U. Korean Armistice Agreement. Ireland to the Department of State. Address by President Dwight D. Explanatory Note from Lt. Memorandum from L. Beria to G. Suzdalev, Resolution acknowledging that charges that the United States had used bacteriological weapons in Korea were false, 2 May , Cold War International history Project.
Telegram to V. Suzdalev, to V. Public opinion on the Korean War, , Memorandum on recent polls, June 2, Anspacher to George A. Morgan on the situation in East Germany, 17 June Media], June 26, Report, National Security Council. Psychological Strategy Board, "Interim U. Central Intelligence Agency. Directorate of Plans Memorandum. Despatch, U.
President Eisenhower's hand-edited draft of his public statement on the occasion of the Armistice, July 26, , Papers of James C. Records of the White House Staff Secretary. United States Embassy, Iraq. Air Force. Chief of Staff. President Eisenhower on his administration's post-Armistice policy toward Korea, Staff note, January 5, Gerald K. David M. Scientific Satellite Program," May 20, Scientific Satellite Program," May 20, , more complete version. Senate Resolution S. William J. Krushchev, 12 July , July 12 Study Prepared for U. Note from N. Radio Broadcasts from Hungary, 23 October-4 November Telegram from the Budapest KGB Station concerning the latest developments in the city following the popular uprising, October 28 Mikoyan-Suslov Report on the situation in Hungary, October 30 The Times , "Insurgents marching in Budapest," 30 October Protocol No.
Manchester Guardian , "Hungarian exiles answer student's questions," 31 October Andropov Report on Hungary, November 01 Epishev, November 03 Kadar, F. Munnich, and I. Horvath, November 03 Zhukov report on the situation in Hungary as of 12 noon, November 04 Mikoyan and Suslov describe their trip to Hungary, November 04 Cable, N. Last Message from Imre Nagy, 4 November Shepilov pledges to investigate the circumstances surrounding tank fire near the Yugoslav embassy in Budapest, November 07 Holodkov to Interior Minister N. Dudorov, November 15, Richard Witkin, "U. Memo for the President regarding U. Jackson regarding Soviet satellite, October 8, , C. Jackson Papers, Box 69, Log Memorandum of Conference with the President on October 8, , a.
Memorandum of Conference with the President on October 8, , p. Secretary Dulles' news conference of October 16, Subjects include military programs and satellite projects, November 13, Prestige," New York Times , 7 December Letter addressed by N. Memorandum and attachment re Soviet note discussing violation of Soviet state border, April 22, Memorandum in which President questions his civilian and uniformed defense chiefs on risks and benefits of current and future aerial intelligence operations over the Soviet Union, February 12, , Office of the Staff Secretary, Subject Series, Alphabetical Subseries, Box 15, Intelligence Matters.
Memorandum in which President questions his science advisors on new, less-risky aerial intelligence technology soon to come on-line, discusses risks and benefits of continued U-2 operations, strength of U. US, Congress, U. Memorandum re lack of intelligence on progress of Soviet ICBM program, military and political risks of overflights of the Soviet Union versus potential benefits, April 3, Memorandum re President's concerns about grave risks posed by U-2 overflights; questions whether intelligence gained is worth the potential damage to negotiations with Soviets, April 11, , Office of the Staff Secretary, Subject Series, Alphabetical Subseries, Box 15, Intelligence Matters.
On the Soviet side, the same people took part as in the previous meeting, and also A. Kosygin and N. S Patolichev," 4 July Memorandum in which President discusses with his advisors the risks and benefits of additional U-2 flights over the Soviet Union given fluid political situation within the Soviet Union, need for negotiation with the Soviets, July 8, , Office of the Staff Secretary, Subject Series, Alphabetical Subseries, Box 15, Intelligence Matters. Khrushchev-Nixon "kitchen" debate, July 24, National Aeronautics and Space Administration press release concerning missing U-2 airplane, May 5, United States Note to the U.
Soviet note to the United States about the shooting down of a U-2, May 10, Washington Post article, "U. Memorandum of Conversation between President Eisenhower and Congressional leadership on the U-2 incident, Washington, May 26, , a. Memorandum for the Record ending U-2 flights, Washington, June 1, State Department telegram regarding coordination with British on U. Memorandum of discussion on all forms of aircraft intelligence reconnaissance operations, including U-2s, RBs, other aircraft, and types of intelligence derived from these operations, undated summer , White House Office of the Staff Secretary, Subject Series, Alphabetical Subseries, Box 15, Intelligence Matters. Memorandum in which President discusses the military and diplomatic risks of all forms of overhead and peripheral aerial reconnaissance, but authorizes continued operations, August 10, , Office of the Staff Secretary, Subject Series, Alphabetical Subseries, Box 15, Intelligence Matters.
Memorandum of discussion with British officials about critical diplomatic issues and need for U. Record of meeting between N. Khrushchev and W. Ulbricht on the situation in East Germany, November 30, President John F. Kennedy Inaugural Address, January 20, Memorandum from Lt. General John K. Memorandum from John M. Targeting, 26 April President Kennedy's Berlin Speech, July 25, Khrushchev speech on the Berlin crisis, August 4, Major William Y. Epishev about the aggressive actions of the US toward Cuba, October 24 Notes of Conversation between A.
Mikoyan and Fidel Castro in which Castro expresses his displeasure over the withdrawal of Soviet missiles from Cuba, November 03 Organizational Principles of the Czechoslovak Army, November 22, Averell Harriman to President John F. Kennedy on Chinese nuclear capabilities, 23 January , Secret, enclosed with letter from Harriman to Evelyn Lincoln, 23 January General Curtis E. Robert H. Memorandum from William Y. Smith to Maxwell Taylor on shifting from massive retaliation to flexible response, 7 November Memorandum, General Maxwell D.
Rostow, 17 April Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society Speech, May Memorandum, Robert H.Education During The Cold War Truman to Karl T. The United States could no longer The Mother Gwendolyn Brooks Analysis on European refugees for all of its mathematicians, though they Education During The Cold War an important source, so it had to Education During The Cold War increase the domestic Education During The Cold War. Shepilov pledges to investigate the circumstances surrounding tank fire near the Yugoslav embassy in Budapest, Education During The Cold War 07