⒈ Blog Credibility In Social Media
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How To Build Credibility On Social Media
In the s, "multi-author blogs" MABs emerged, featuring the writing of multiple authors and sometimes professionally edited. MABs from newspapers , other media outlets , universities, think tanks , advocacy groups , and similar institutions account for an increasing quantity of blog traffic. The rise of Twitter and other " microblogging " systems helps integrate MABs and single-author blogs into the news media. Blog can also be used as a verb, meaning to maintain or add content to a blog.
The emergence and growth of blogs in the late s coincided with the advent of web publishing tools that facilitated the posting of content by non-technical users who did not have much experience with HTML or computer programming. Previously, a knowledge of such technologies as HTML and File Transfer Protocol had been required to publish content on the Web, and early Web users therefore tended to be hackers and computer enthusiasts. In the s, the majority are interactive Web 2. Indeed, bloggers not only produce content to post on their blogs but also often build social relations with their readers and other bloggers.
Many blogs provide commentary on a particular subject or topic, ranging from philosophy, religion, and arts to science, politics, and sports. Others function as more personal online diaries or online brand advertising of a particular individual or company. A typical blog combines text, digital images , and links to other blogs, web pages, and other media related to its topic.
The ability of readers to leave publicly viewable comments, and interact with other commenters, is an important contribution to the popularity of many blogs. However, blog owners or authors often moderate and filter online comments to remove hate speech or other offensive content. Most blogs are primarily textual, although some focus on art art blogs , photographs photoblogs , videos video blogs or " vlogs " , music MP3 blogs , and audio podcasts.
In education, blogs can be used as instructional resources; these are referred to as edublogs. Microblogging is another type of blogging, featuring very short posts. So, one could be maintaining a blog on Facebook or blogging on Instagram. On February 16, [update] , there were over million public blogs in existence. On February 20, , there were around million Tumblr  and According to critics and other bloggers, Blogger is the most popular blogging service used today. However, Blogger does not offer public statistics. The term "weblog" was coined by Jorn Barger  on December 17, The short form, "blog", was coined by Peter Merholz , who jokingly broke the word weblog into the phrase we blog in the sidebar of his blog Peterme.
In the s, Internet forum software created running conversations with "threads". Threads are topical connections between messages on a virtual " corkboard ". From June 14, , Mosaic Communications Corporation maintained their "What's New"  list of new websites, updated daily and archived monthly. The page was accessible by a special "What's New" button in the Mosaic web browser. The earliest instance of a commercial blog was on the first business to consumer Web site created in by Ty, Inc. The entries were maintained by featured Beanie Babies that were voted for monthly by Web site visitors. The modern blog evolved from the online diary where people would keep a running account of the events in their personal lives.
Most such writers called themselves diarists, journalists, or journalers. Justin Hall , who began personal blogging in while a student at Swarthmore College , is generally recognized as one of the earlier bloggers,  as is Jerry Pournelle. Daily Net News ran links and daily reviews of new websites, mostly in Australia. Another early blog was Wearable Wireless Webcam, an online shared diary of a person's personal life combining text, digital video, and digital pictures transmitted live from a wearable computer and EyeTap device to a web site in This practice of semi-automated blogging with live video together with text was referred to as sousveillance , and such journals were also used as evidence in legal matters.
Some early bloggers, such as The Misanthropic Bitch, who began in , actually referred to their online presence as a zine , before the term blog entered common usage. Early blogs were simply manually updated components of common Websites. In , the "Online Diary" on the Ty, Inc. Web site was produced and updated manually before any blogging programs were available.
Posts were made to appear in reverse chronological order by manually updating text based HTML code using FTP software in real time several times a day. To users, this offered the appearance of a live diary that contained multiple new entries per day. At the beginning of each new day, new diary entries were manually coded into a new HTML file, and the start of each month, diary entries were archived into its own folder which contained a separate HTML page for every day of the month.
Then menus that contained links to the most recent diary entry were updated manually throughout the site. This text-based method of organizing thousands of files served as a springboard to define future blogging styles that were captured by blogging software developed years later. The evolution of electronic and software tools to facilitate the production and maintenance of Web articles posted in reverse chronological order made the publishing process feasible to a much larger and less technically-inclined population. Ultimately, this resulted in the distinct class of online publishing that produces blogs we recognize today.
For instance, the use of some sort of browser-based software is now a typical aspect of "blogging". Blogs can be hosted by dedicated blog hosting services , on regular web hosting services , or run using blog software. After a slow start, blogging rapidly gained in popularity. Blog usage spread during and the years following, being further popularized by the near-simultaneous arrival of the first hosted blog tools:.
An early milestone in the rise in importance of blogs came in , when many bloggers focused on comments by U. Senate Majority Leader Trent Lott. Senator Strom Thurmond , praised Senator Thurmond by suggesting that the United States would have been better off had Thurmond been elected president. Lott's critics saw these comments as a tacit approval of racial segregation , a policy advocated by Thurmond's presidential campaign. This view was reinforced by documents and recorded interviews dug up by bloggers. Though Lott's comments were made at a public event attended by the media, no major media organizations reported on his controversial comments until after blogs broke the story.
Blogging helped to create a political crisis that forced Lott to step down as majority leader. Similarly, blogs were among the driving forces behind the " Rathergate " scandal. To wit: television journalist Dan Rather presented documents on the CBS show 60 Minutes that conflicted with accepted accounts of President Bush's military service record. Bloggers declared the documents to be forgeries and presented evidence and arguments in support of that view. Many bloggers view this scandal as the advent of blogs' acceptance by the mass media, both as a news source and opinion and as means of applying political pressure. Though often seen as partisan gossips, [ citation needed ] bloggers sometimes lead the way in bringing key information to public light, with mainstream media having to follow their lead.
More often, however, news blogs tend to react to material already published by the mainstream media. Meanwhile, an increasing number of experts blogged, making blogs a source of in-depth analysis. In Russia, some political bloggers have started to challenge the dominance of official, overwhelmingly pro-government media. Bloggers such as Rustem Adagamov and Alexei Navalny have many followers and the latter's nickname for the ruling United Russia party as the "party of crooks and thieves" has been adopted by anti-regime protesters. By , the role of blogs became increasingly mainstream, as political consultants , news services, and candidates began using them as tools for outreach and opinion forming.
Blogging was established by politicians and political candidates to express opinions on war and other issues and cemented blogs' role as a news source. See Howard Dean and Wesley Clark. Israel was among the first national governments to set up an official blog. The impact of blogging upon the mainstream media has also been acknowledged by governments. In , the presence of the American journalism industry had declined to the point that several newspaper corporations were filing for bankruptcy, resulting in less direct competition between newspapers within the same circulation area.
Discussion emerged as to whether the newspaper industry would benefit from a stimulus package by the federal government. President Barack Obama acknowledged the emerging influence of blogging upon society by saying "if the direction of the news is all blogosphere, all opinions, with no serious fact-checking, no serious attempts to put stories in context, then what you will end up getting is people shouting at each other across the void but not a lot of mutual understanding". There are many different types of blogs, differing not only in the type of content, but also in the way that content is delivered or written.
As the popularity of blogging continues to rise, the commercialisation of blogging is rapidly increasing. Many corporations and companies collaborate with bloggers to increase advertising and engage online communities towards their products. In the book Fans, Bloggers, and Gamers , Henry Jenkins stated that "Bloggers take knowledge in their own hands, enabling successful navigation within and between these emerging knowledge cultures.
One can see such behaviour as co-optation into commodity culture insofar as it sometimes collaborates with corporate interests, but one can also see it as increasing the diversity of media culture, providing opportunities for greater inclusiveness, and making more responsive to consumers. As of [update] , blogging had become such a mania that a new blog was created every second of every minute of every hour of every day. There are essentially two measures of this: popularity through citations, as well as popularity through affiliation i. The basic conclusion from studies of the structure of blogs is that while it takes time for a blog to become popular through blogrolls, permalinks can boost popularity more quickly, and are perhaps more indicative of popularity and authority than blogrolls, since they denote that people are actually reading the blog's content and deem it valuable or noteworthy in specific cases.
The blogdex project was launched by researchers in the MIT Media Lab to crawl the Web and gather data from thousands of blogs to investigate their social properties. Information was gathered by the tool for over four years, during which it autonomously tracked the most contagious information spreading in the blog community, ranking it by recency and popularity. It can, therefore, [ original research? The project was replaced by tailrank. Blogs are given rankings by Alexa Internet web hits of Alexa Toolbar users , and formerly by blog search engine Technorati based on the number of incoming links Technorati stopped doing this in In August , Technorati found that the most linked-to blog on the internet was that of Chinese actress Xu Jinglei.
Many bloggers, particularly those engaged in participatory journalism , are amateur journalists, and thus they differentiate themselves from the professional reporters and editors who work in mainstream media organizations. Other bloggers are media professionals who are publishing online, rather than via a TV station or newspaper, either as an add-on to a traditional media presence e. Some institutions and organizations see blogging as a means of "getting around the filter" of media " gatekeepers " and pushing their messages directly to the public. Many mainstream journalists, meanwhile, write their own blogs—well over , according to CyberJournalist.
Some bloggers have moved over to other media. In counterpoint, Hugh Hewitt exemplifies a mass media personality who has moved in the other direction, adding to his reach in "old media" by being an influential blogger. Blogs have also had an influence on minority languages , bringing together scattered speakers and learners; this is particularly so with blogs in Gaelic languages. Minority language publishing which may lack economic feasibility can find its audience through inexpensive blogging. There are examples of bloggers who have published books based on their blogs, e. Blog-based books have been given the name blook.
A prize for the best blog-based book was initiated in ,  the Lulu Blooker Prize. Consumer-generated advertising is a relatively new and controversial development, and it has created a new model of marketing communication from businesses to consumers. Among the various forms of advertising on blog, the most controversial are the sponsored posts. Blogs have led to some disintermediation and a breakdown of the traditional advertising model, where companies can skip over the advertising agencies previously the only interface with the customer and contact the customers directly via social media websites.
On the other hand, new companies specialised in blog advertising have been established, to take advantage of this new development as well. However, there are many people who look negatively on this new development. Some believe that any form of commercial activity on blogs will destroy the blogosphere's credibility. Blogging can result in a range of legal liabilities and other unforeseen consequences. Several cases have been brought before the national courts against bloggers concerning issues of defamation or liability.
Internet Service Providers ISPs , in general, are immune from liability for information that originates with third parties U. In Doe v. Cahill , the Delaware Supreme Court held that stringent standards had to be met to unmask the anonymous bloggers , and also took the unusual step of dismissing the libel case itself as unfounded under American libel law rather than referring it back to the trial court for reconsideration. The Cahills amended their original complaint, and the mayor settled the case rather than going to trial. The plaintiff was supported by the Malaysian government.
In the United States, blogger Aaron Wall was sued by Traffic Power for defamation and publication of trade secrets in The case was dismissed for lack of personal jurisdiction, and Traffic Power failed to appeal within the allowed time. Employees who blog about elements of their place of employment can begin to affect the reputation of their employer, either in a positive way, if the employee is praising the employer and its workplaces, or in a negative way, if the blogger is making negative comments about the company or its practices. In general, attempts by employee bloggers to protect themselves by maintaining anonymity have proved ineffective.
Mr Justice Eady refused to grant an order to protect the anonymity of Richard Horton. Horton was a police officer in the United Kingdom who blogged about his job under the name "NightJack". Delta Air Lines fired flight attendant Ellen Simonetti because she posted photographs of herself in uniform on an airplane and because of comments posted on her blog "Queen of Sky: Diary of a Flight Attendant" which the employer deemed inappropriate.
Simonetti took legal action against the airline for "wrongful termination, defamation of character and lost future wages". In early , Erik Ringmar, a senior lecturer at the London School of Economics , was ordered by the convenor of his department to "take down and destroy" his blog in which he discussed the quality of education at the school. Mark Jen was terminated in after 10 days of employment as an assistant product manager at Google for discussing corporate secrets on his personal blog, then called 99zeros and hosted on the Google-owned Blogger service. He was fired two days after he complied with his employer's request to remove the sensitive material from his blog.
After the blog was discovered and she was fired,  she wrote a novel based on her experiences and blog: The Washingtonienne: A Novel. As of [update] , Cutler is being sued by one of her former lovers in a case that could establish the extent to which bloggers are obligated to protect the privacy of their real life associates. Catherine Sanderson, a. Petite Anglaise , lost her job in Paris at a British accountancy firm because of blogging. Sanderson later won a compensation claim case against the British firm, however. On the other hand, Penelope Trunk wrote an upbeat article in The Boston Globe in , entitled "Blogs 'essential' to a good career".
Business owners who blog about their business can also run into legal consequences. Blogging can sometimes have unforeseen consequences in politically sensitive areas. In some countries, Internet police or secret police may monitor blogs and arrest blog authors of commentators. Blogs can be much harder to control than broadcast or print media, because a person can create a blog whose authorship is hard to trace, by using anonymity technology such as Tor.
In Singapore, two ethnic Chinese individuals were imprisoned under the country's anti-sedition law for posting anti-Muslim remarks in their blogs. It is the first time in the history of Egypt that a blogger was prosecuted. After a brief trial session that took place in Alexandria , the blogger was found guilty and sentenced to prison terms of three years for insulting Islam and inciting sedition, and one year for insulting Mubarak.
Monem is a member of the then banned Muslim Brotherhood. After the Egyptian revolution , the Egyptian blogger Maikel Nabil Sanad was charged with insulting the military for an article he wrote on his personal blog and sentenced to 3 years. After expressing opinions in his personal blog about the state of the Sudanese armed forces, Jan Pronk , United Nations Special Representative for the Sudan , was given three days notice to leave Sudan.
The Sudanese army had demanded his deportation. One consequence of blogging is the possibility of online or in-person attacks or threats against the blogger, sometimes without apparent reason. In some cases, bloggers have faced cyberbullying. Kathy Sierra , author of the blog "Creating Passionate Users",  was the target of threats and misogynistic insults to the point that she canceled her keynote speech at a technology conference in San Diego, fearing for her safety.
Sierra and supporters initiated an online discussion aimed at countering abusive online behavior  and developed a Blogger's Code of Conduct , which set out a rules for behaviour in the online space. The Blogger's Code of Conduct is a list of seven proposed ideas. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Discussion or informational site published on the internet. For the Google service, see Blogger service. For other uses, see Blog disambiguation. Main articles: History of blogging and online diary. This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. April See also: Political repression of cyber-dissidents. Voice: Clean, playful, approachable humor. Responses should be upbeat, optimistic and positive.
Puns are encouraged. Avoid being sarcastic or mocking customers, followers or other brands. For example, our voice is confident, not cocky. To take an example from our own style guide :. Yet another world-class tool for our customers. Another helpful tip is to include screenshots with examples of posts from your brand or others that showcase the tone you want to establish. Your social media posts should follow certain grammatical standards as well. This goes beyond whether or not you use AP Style. It extends to any terminology you use in-house, how you use abbreviations, when to use exclamation points and other things that help create cohesiveness in your content.
If you already have a grammar handbook for your website or blog, you could carry over a lot of the same rules to your social media style guide. Social, however, is a great place to loosen the proverbial necktie a bit. Some brands like to use a specific format for sharing links, status updates or other types of posts. For instance, Tweets might follow a format of headline, link and hashtag. Or your brand might choose to list all your hashtags within the first comment of an Instagram post rather than the caption. Spotify takes a very quick and brief approach with their Instagram posts, keeping most of them to just two to three sentences, a few hashtags, an emoji and an artist-focused visual.
Link in bio. All of these small nuances make it easier for your team to share content and streamline your process. Another thing to consider is attribution for your content. Some brands send every Tweet and Facebook post as the company. For instance, the social support team at Delta Airlines initials Tweets that are responses to customers. This makes it easier to identify who responded to each Tweet. We will make every effort to locate the pen asap. Hello, I'm sorry to hear you are having an issue online.
Hashtag usage Not everyone uses hashtags the same way. Some people will cram as many into a Tweet as Twitter will allow. Some leverage the hashtag free-for-all allowed on Instagram to expand their reach. Others use them once in a blue moon. Keep things organized by outlining any campaign- or brand-specific hashtags and how your team should use them in your social media posts. Your basic branded hashtag should be used on an ongoing basis to build familiarity with your audience. It also operates as a community hashtag, adding up to over 36k tagged posts. The Riviera Side Chair is a welcoming addition to any dining space.
A lot of businesses feature branded hashtags in their social bios, which can really come in handy if user-generated content is part of your strategy. Since most social networks are highly visual, your social media style guide should set parameters and standards for any images you share. There are two major types of visuals to cover inside your guide:. For instance, take a look at Square Sayings on Instagram. Their feed is colorful, simple, and uniform. That style carries over to their Pinterest, Twitter, etc. This kind of remote storage is particularly helpful for companies with employees spread across several cities or countries. Rather than go through the hassle of storing your visual assets separately, team members can go straight to the asset library within Sprout and publish directly from there.
It also cuts down on the time needed to get approval for visuals to share, since all the images have already been approved. How does your brand treat interactions with competitors on social media? Is there a friendly competition or do you ignore them altogether? Use your social media style guide to detail how your company handles these situations. A lot of it will have to do with your brand voice. Not really afraid of the burgers from a place that decided pancakes were too hard. If your competitor runs into a crisis, it could be an opportunity to attract new attention.
When one of their competitors pulled a commercial featuring a kiss between a same-sex couple, Freeform TV weighed in to make that clear. This is what happens when you focus all your energy on exclusion instead of clever plotlines. Call us, Zola. We celebrate the holidays with everyone. When customers ask questions, share your content or engage with you, how should your team respond?
Formalizing this in a style guide will keep everyone on the same page and create cohesion. The same thing applies to social media. Even if there are different people managing your profiles, responses need to be consistent. Sprout users can save replies in their asset library. Keep in mind that people crave human connection on social. The last thing your company needs is to run into legal issues over a social post. For instance, many government agencies have rules for what they can and cannot publish on social. No two style guides look the same or are even published the same way. Some companies might have a printed manual while others choose to let theirs live online. See the full guide. VCU Arts has an in-depth social media style guide that covers everything from what type of tone to use in posts to how they approach Instagram takeovers.
Use the tips and examples in this guide to give you some ideas for your own social media style guide.Blog Credibility In Social Media social media style Blog Credibility In Social Media is the go-to is life of pi based on true story for how your brand appears and acts on social. This kind of remote storage is warrior (2011) helpful for companies with employees spread across several cities or countries. Blog Credibility In Social Media uranus-god that.