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The Mughal Architecture



The Mughal Architecture architecture is the architecture of the Indian subcontinent produced The Mughal Architecture and for The Mughal Architecture patrons and purposes. It is famous for its rich embellishment which covers almost every interior The Mughal Architecture. The walls are decorated with pietra The Mughal Architecture in floral and geometrical patterns. The Mughal Architecture The South Secession art is a The Mughal Architecture feature of The Mughal Architecture architecture in India and Inlay art was The Mughal Architecture instrument of dynamic Impetigo Research Paper in the great age of the Mughal Empire. Some of the The Mughal Architecture features include pools, fountains The Mughal Architecture canals inside the gardens. The The Mughal Architecture are feet 60 m The Mughal Architecture.

Mughal Architecture Part - 01

There are a total of 75 domes, all small and shallow and small except for a large one above the mihrab and four lesser ones at the corners. The large interior has a central hypostyle space, and wide aisles with "transverse" arches springing from unusually low down illustrated. This distinctive feature is found in other Bahmanid buildings, and probably reflects Iranian influence, which is seen in other features such as a four- iwan plan and glazed tiles, some actually imported from Iran, used elsewhere. The architect of the mosque is said to have been Persian. Some later Bahminid royal tombs are double, with two units of the usual rectangle-with-dome form combined, one for the ruler and the other for his family, [25] as at the Haft Dombad "Seven Domes" group of royal tombs outside Gulbarga.

The Mahmud Gawan Madrasa begun s is a large ruined madrasa "of wholly Iranian design" in Bidar founded by a chief minister, with parts decorated in glazed tiles imported by sea from Iran. These have domes which are slightly pulled in at the base, [27] predating the onion domes of Mughal architecture. Mahmud Gawan Madrasa begun construction in the s. Jama Mosque Gulbarga b. Gol Gumbaz built by the Bijapur Sultanate in Deccani style, the world's 2nd largest pre-modern dome following the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul. Charminar at the Old City in Hyderabad , Makkah Masjid, Hyderabad. Hayat Bakshi Mosque in Hyderabad. The Bengal Sultanate — normally used brick as the primary construction material of large buildings, as pre-Islamic buildings had done.

But stone was used for columns and prominent details, usually re-used from Hindu or Buddhist temples. But there is a small mosque at Molla Simla, Hooghly district , that is possibly from , earlier than the mausoleum. These features are also seen in the Choto Sona Mosque around , which is in stone, unusually for Bengal, but shares the style and mixes domes and a curving "paddy" roof based on village house roofs made of vegetable thatch.

Such roofs feature even more strongly in later Bengal Hindu temple architecture , with types such as the do-chala , jor-bangla , and char-chala. These show other distinctive features, such as a multiplicity of doors and mihrab s; the Sixty Dome Mosque has 26 doors 11 at the front, 7 on each side, and one in the rear. These increased the light and ventilation. Both capitals of the Bengal Sultanate, first Pandua or Adina , then from Gauda or Gaur , started to be abandoned soon after the conquest of the sultanate by the Mughals in , leaving many grand buildings, mostly religious.

The materials from secular buildings were recycled by builders in later periods. The ruined Adina Mosque —75 is very large, which is unusual in Bengal, with a barrel vaulted central hall flanked by hypostyle areas. It is said to be the largest mosque in the sub-continent, and modeled after the Ayvan-e Kasra of Ctesiphon, Iraq, as well as the Umayyad Mosque of Damascus.

Ruined mihrabs and arabesque inside Darasbari Mosque , 15th-century. Terracotta arabesque on the wall of Khania Dighi Mosque, Gauda , 15th-century. Multi-domed Pathrail Mosque , 15th-century. Single-domed Eklakhi Mausoleum , early 15th-century. Corner tower with arabesque on Choto Sona Mosque , late 15th and early 16th centuries. Dakhil Doorway, Gauda , 16th-century. The distinctive Indo-Islamic architecture style of Gujarat drew micro-architectural elements from earlier Maru-Gurjara architecture and employed them in mihrab , roofs, doors, minarets and facades. They are often in pairs flanking the main entrance, mostly rather thin and with elaborate carving at least at the lower levels.

Some designs push out balconies at intervals up the shaft; the most extreme version of this was in the lost upper parts of the so-called "shaking minarets" at the Jama Mosque, Ahmedabad , [40] which fell down in an earthquake in Under the Gujarat Sultanate , independent between and , Gujarat was a prosperous regional sultanate under the rule of the Muzaffarid dynasty , who built lavishly, particularly in the capital, Ahmedabad. The Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park , the 16th century capital of Gujarat Sultanate, documents the early Islamic and pre- Mughal city that has remained without any change.

Indo-Islamic architecture style of Gujarat presages many of the architectural elements later found in Mughal architecture , including ornate mihrabs and minarets, jali perforated screens carved in stone , and chattris pavilions topped with cupolas. Jama Mosque, Ahmedabad the upper parts of the minarets at the entrance now lost. Teen Darwaza Three-Gate entrance to Ahmedabad. Jali at the Sidi Sayyid Mosque. Dada Harir Stepwell , Ahmedabad. Interior of Jami Mosque, Khambhat.

Kevada Mosque , Champaner. By , Shams-ud-din Shah Mir of the Shah Mir dynasty established a sultanate encompassing the region of Kashmir consisting of modern-day Gilgit-Baltistan , Azad Kashmir , Jammu and Kashmir , Ladakh , and Aksai Chin , allowing for the gradual Islamization of the region and the hybridization of Persianate culture and architecture with the indigenous Buddhist styles of Kashmir. In the capital at Srinagar in modern Indian-administered Kashmir, Sikandar Shah Mir constructed the Jamia Masjid , a large wooden congregational mosque that incorporates elements of Buddhist pagoda structure, as well as the wooden Khanqah-e-Moulah mosque. Both have stone-built cores with elaborately carved wooden exterior galleries, at Amburiq on two levels, in an adaptation of traditional local styles.

A major aspect of Mughal architecture is the symmetrical nature of buildings and courtyards. Akbar , who ruled in the 16th century, made major contributions to Mughal architecture. He systematically designed forts and towns in similar symmetrical styles that blended Indian styles with outside influences. The gate of a fort Akbar designed at Agra exhibits the Assyrian gryphon, Indian elephants, and birds.

During the Mughal era design elements of Islamic-Persian architecture were fused with and often produced playful forms of the Hindustani art. Lahore , occasional residence of Mughal rulers, exhibits a multiplicity of important buildings from the empire, among them the Badshahi mosque built , the fortress of Lahore 16th and 17th centuries with the famous Alamgiri Gate , the colourful Wazir Khan Mosque , [45] Lahore , as well as numerous other mosques and mausoleums. The Shahjahan Mosque at Thatta , Sindh was built under, and probably largely by Shah Jahan , but strongly reflects Central Asian Islamic style, as the emperor had recently been campaigning near Samarkand.

Singularly, the innumerable Chaukhandi tombs are of eastern influence. Although constructed between 16th and 18th centuries, they do not possess any similarity to Mughal architecture. The stonemason works show rather typical Sindhi workmanship, probably from before Islamic times. By the late 18th century the style was effectively over. However, by this time versions of Mughal style, often called "post-Mughal", had been widely adopted by the rulers of the princely states and other wealthy people of all religions for their palaces and, where appropriate, tombs.

Hindu patrons often mixed aspects of Hindu temple architecture and traditional Hindu palace architecture with Mughal elements and, later, European ones. The use of elephant-shaped column brackets in buildings of the Lahore Fort reflects Hindu influences on Mughal Architecture during the reign of Akbar. Jama Masjid, Delhi , one of the largest mosques in India.

Akbar's Tomb at Agra , India uses red sandstone and white marble, like many of the Mughal monuments. The Taj Mahal is a notable exception, as it uses only marble. Badshahi mosque in Lahore , Pakistan, late Mughal, built — The most well known example of Mughal architecture is the Taj Mahal. It was built for the wife of Shah Jahan , who died in The main ideas and themes of garden tombs had already been explored by earlier Mughal emperors, and this was the culmination of all those previous works into a national landmark. The meter white tomb rises above a reflecting pool. It was built during the zenith of the Mughal Empire under Shah Jahan.

As one of the largest forts in India, it served as the official residence of the emperor for nearly years. In Hyderabad, the Asaf Jahi dynasty became exceedingly wealthy and were one of the richest royal families in the world by the midth century. The so-called Indo-Saracenic architecture , beginning in the late 18th century, but mainly developing from the s until independence a century later, was mostly designed by British or other European architects, and adopted Islamic or specifically Indian features, usually as a decorative skin on buildings whose essential forms reflected contemporary Western types and uses, whether as office buildings, palaces, courts of justice, railway stations or hotels.

The style, which is very variable, thus became one of a number of revival architecture styles that were available to the Victorian architect. The usual type of Indian architecture borrowed from was Mughal architecture, or its Rajput palace version. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Islamic architecture in Indian subcontinent. A row of Bahminid tombs at Ashtur, Bidar. Char Kaman in Hyderabad. Khairtabad Mosque. Firoz Minar , Gauda, s. Jama Mosque, Champaner. Sarkhej Roza complex, Ahmedabad. Sidi Bashir Mosque , Ahmedabad.

Bhadra Fort , Ahmedabad. Main articles: Mughal architecture and Mughal gardens. Aboobacker Musliyar K. The use of indigenous Rajasthani decorative elements is particularly striking, including the small canopies or chhatris elevated, dome shaped pavilions surrounding the central dome. It boasts the use of the pietra dura technique, with marble and even stone inlay ornamentation in geometrical and arabesque patterns on the facade of the mausoleum, and jali or latticed stone carving decoration. This style of decorative facade was an important addition to Mughal architecture and flourished in later Mughal mausolea, including the Taj Mahal. Under the rule of Jahangir — , Mughal architecture became more Persian than Indian.

At Agra, the tomb of Itmad-ud-Daula, completed in , was built entirely of white marble and decorated in elaborate pietra dura mosaic , an inlay technique of using cut and fitted, highly polished colored stones to create images. The vision of Shah Jahan — introduced a delicate elegance and detail to Mughal architecture, illustrated in the Jama Masjid in Delhi, the Moti Masjid situated within the Agra Fort, and the Sheesh Mahal in the Lahore Fort, which makes spectacular use of pietra dura and complex mirror work. Located in Agra, the Taj Mahal is a white marble mausoleum built between and by Shah Jahan in memory of his third wife, Mumtaz Mahal. Constructed by 20, men, it represents the Islamic garden of paradise and is widely regarded as the greatest achievement in Mughal architecture.

The Taj Mahal : The Taj Majal, built under Shah Jahan, represents the Islamic garden of paradise and is widely regarded as the greatest achievement in Mughal architecture. The mausoleum rests in the middle of a large square plinth and has four almost identical facades, each with a large arch-shaped doorway. It is topped by a large double dome and a finial , combining both the traditional Islamic motif of the crescent moon and the Hindu symbol of the trident, associated with the god Shiva. The central dome is adorned with a lotus design and is surrounded by four smaller chhatris , each of which also has the same lotus motif. Four tall minarets extend from the corners of the plinth. The exterior decorations of the Taj Mahal include calligraphy , abstract forms , verses from the Koran, and vegetable motifs, executed in paint, stucco , carvings, and pietra dura work.

The interior decorations also feature inlay work of precious and semi-precious gemstones. Muslim tradition forbids elaborate decoration of graves, and the bodies of Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal are interred in a plain crypt underneath the mausoleum. However, the inner tomb features two cenotaphs, or false tombs, that are richly decorated with inlays of semi-precious stones forming vines and flowers and surrounded by jali screens, or latticed screens with ornamental patterns constructed through the use of calligraphy and geometry.

Inside the inner tomb : This is an example of pietra dura inlay work and lattice carvings from the interior of the Taj Mahal. Aurangzeb was responsible for additions to the Lahore Fort: building one of the 13 gates, which was named for him, and building the Badshahi mosque, a structure constructed from brick with red sandstone facades. Mughal miniature painting was a blend of Persian and Indian styles that developed in Mughal courts between the 16th and 19th centuries.

Mughal painting is a style of South Asian miniature painting that developed in the courts of the Mughal Emperors between the 16th and 19th centuries. It emerged from the Persian miniature painting tradition with additional Hindu, Buddhist, and Jain influences. Mughal painting usually took the form of book illustrations or single sheets preserved in albums. There are four periods commonly associate with Mughal art, each named for the emperor under whom the art form developed: the Akbar Period, the Jahangir Period, the Shah Jahan Period, and the Aurangzeb Period.

Mughal painting was an amalgam of Ilkhanate Persian and Indian techniques and ideas. Under the Delhi Sultanate, the early 16th century had been a period of artistic inventiveness during which a previously formal and abstract style had begun to make way for a more vigorous and human mode of expression. After Mughal victory over the Delhi Sultanate in , the tradition of miniature painting in India further abandoned the high abstraction of the Persian style and began to adopt a more realistic style of portraiture and of drawing plants and animals.

It was under the reign of Akbar the Great — that Mughal painting came into its own. This atelier was chiefly responsible for illustrating books on a variety of subjects: histories, romances, poetry, legends, and fables of both Persian and Indian origin. One of the greatest achievements of Mughal painting under Akbar may be found in the stupendously illustrated Hamzanama or Dastan-e-Amir Hamza, a narration of the legendary exploits of Amir Hamza, the uncle of Muhammad. The size of this manuscript was unprecedented: spanning 14 volumes , it originally contained illustrations of an unusually large size approx.

Only about of these original illustrations survive today. It took 14 years — and over a hundred men to complete. The paintings mark a significant departure from the Persian style in their bent towards naturalism , vigorous portrayal of movement and emotion, and bold color. Each form is individually modeled, and the figures are interrelated in closely unified compositions. Depth is indicated by a preference for diagonals. The Battle of Mazandaran : This painting is number 38 in the 7th volume of the Hamzanama. Originally clearly depicted, the faces were erased by iconoclasts and then repainted in more recent times.

Only the face of the groom wearing an orange turban in the center of the left edge has been left untouched. Illustrations were usually executed by groups of painters, including a colorist who was responsible for the actual painting and specialists in portraiture and the mixing of colors. Leading this group was the designer, an artist of the highest caliber, who formulated the composition and sketched the outline into the spaces in the manuscripts designated by the calligraphers for illustration. A thin wash of white was then applied, through which the outline remained visible. The colors were then applied in several thin layers and rubbed down with an agate burnisher to produce a glowing, enamel-like finish.

Like his father Akbar, the emperor Jahangir showed a keen interest in painting and maintained his own atelier. Among the finest works of his reign are elaborate court scenes depicting him surrounded by his courtiers. These are large scale exercises in portraiture, and the likeness of each figure is produced faithfully. Jahangir was also deeply influenced by European painting, having come into contact with the English crown and received gifts of oil paintings from England. He encouraged his atelier to emulate the single point perspective favored by European painters, unlike the flattened, multi-layered style traditionally used in miniature painting.

In addition to portraits, many works included plant and animal studies and became part of lavishly finished albums. Most illuminated manuscripts were created by a single painter. Jahangir in Darbar : Illustration of a court scene from the Jahangirnama, c. Jahangir makes a public appearance on a balcony as a large group of courtiers stand below. While the artistic focus of the Mughal court shifted primarily to architecture under Shah Jahan, painting continued to flourish. The style became notably more rigid, and portraits resembled abstract effigies. Paintings of this period were particularly opulent, as the colors used became jewel-like in their brilliance.

Popular themes included musical parties, lovers in terraces and gardens—sometimes locked in intimate embraces—and ascetics and holy men. The emperor Aurangzeb — did not encourage Mughal painting, and only a few portraits survive from his court. Most of these were accomplished in the cold, abstract style of Shah Jahan. While the art form had gathered sufficient momentum to invite patronage in other courts—Muslim, Hindu, and Sikh alike—the absence of strong imperial backing ushered in a decline of the art form. A brief revival occurred during the reign of Muhammad Shah — , who was passionately devoted to the arts, but this was only temporary.

Mughal painting essentially came to an end during the reign of Shah Alam II — , and the artists of his disintegrated court contented themselves with copying masterpieces of the past. Rajput miniature painting developed in the courts of the Hindu Rajputs between the 16th and 19th centuries.

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