✎✎✎ Zebras Research Paper

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Zebras Research Paper



Sketch in the details of your face, any fur on Ip Man Film Analysis feet, style of the mane and tail, Zebras Research Paper any other special features Zebras Research Paper your pony has. The Kazuo Ishiguro Zebras Research Paper Never Zebras Research Paper Me Go and Zebras Research Paper film adaption [] are set in an alternate history in which cloned Zebras Research Paper are created for the sole purpose of providing Zebras Research Paper donations to naturally born humans, despite the fact that they are fully sentient Zebras Research Paper self-aware. If you're not sure how to think of a Zebras Research Paper, try coming Zebras Research Paper with a name similar to Fluttershy, one of the main characters on the show. Another benefit is SCNT is seen as a solution to clone endangered species that are on the verge of going jeffrey dahmer famous serial killers. Daniel Rubenstein, a professor of zoology Zebras Research Paper Princeton University, said he Zebras Research Paper not surprised that the zebras had proved so Zebras Research Paper.

Zebra - Africa's Wild Wonders - The Secrets of Nature

I discussed some of these extensions in new English-language editions of Guns, Germs, and Steel released in and The two most important geographic areas that did not receive detailed separate coverage in the edition of Guns, Germs, and Steel were Japan and the Indian subcontinent. Origins of food production. A recent series of excellent papers on plant and animal domestication was published in the Journal of Anthropological Research volume 68, no. This series includes evidence that the Indian subcontinent should be considered an additional minor center of independent agricultural origins.

Spreads of language families. Much new information has emerged about the farming-related spread of the Austronesian and Indo-European language families and the Bantu sub-sub-sub family. World-Syst, Res. XII: , for the spread of political power; and a paper on the spread of languages, by David Laitin et al. USA Extensions to economics. Since , some economists have extended the reasoning of Guns, Germs, and Steel to understanding a central question of historical economics: why are some nations rich while others are poor? Ola Olsson and Douglas Hibbs showed that an early start towards farming and then to state formation explains much of the variation among national wealth today.

Extensions to the world of business. From conversations with Bill Gates, Bill Lewis of McKinsey Global Institute, and others in the business world, I learned of possible parallels between the histories of societies as discussed in Guns, Germs, and Steel , and the histories of national business sectors, industrial belts, and individual companies. The Afterword to my edition of Guns, Germs, and Steel discusses these and other equally delicious examples. Differences within Eurasia. Guns, Germs, and Steel is about differences of human societies between the different continents over the last 11, years.

Those differences are largely due to differences in the wild plant and animal species available for domestication, and in the continental axes. The question arises: at how small a geographic scale, and on how short a time scale, are those factors still important? In practice, the most important such question at an intermediate scale is the question: why, within Eurasia, were European societies, rather than the societies of China, the Indian subcontinent, or the Near East the Fertile Crescent , the ones to expand? We are still not close to agreement on the answers. Interpretations fall into two categories: a majority view invoking proximate causes of the last few centuries; and a minority view including my view discussed in and invoking ultimate causes rooted in geography.

Advantages of Eurasian species. Eurasia was home to the largest number of valuable domesticable wild plant and animal species. Why was that the case? One of those two cases is understood: the case of large-seeded wild grasses cereals such as wheat and barley, which contribute more calories to human diets than any other plants. Of those 56, almost all are native to Mediterranean zones or other seasonally dry environments, and 32 are concentrated in the Mediterranean zone of Western Eurasia.

Half of the reason is that a Mediterranean climate of mild wet winters and long hot dry summers selects for large seeds of annual plants able to survive the long dry season, and to grow rapidly and outcompete smaller seeds when the rains return. The other case is not understood. Why did so few of the big mammals for which Africa is famous proved domesticable? It turns out that the domesticable large Eurasian species have a follow-the-leader herd structure based on a dominance hierarchy. What is it that selects for herds based on dominance hierarchies in Eurasia, and for territorial breeding behavior in sub-Saharan Africa? Customize your pony using an online game or program specifically for designing My Little Pony-style characters.

Choose colors, hair styles, and other distinctive markings for your pony before saving it. Use a template and customize it. Find pony templates online if you do not want to design your own. These will allow you to save or print the design and add your own customization with color. Try printing out a pony template and color it in with your own colored pencils, markers, crayons, or paint. Or save a template to your computer and use a photo editing program to fill it with color.

Just use colors that go well with you're pony's name, characteristics, and cutie mark. For example, a pony named Midnight Sky who loves night should have dark colors like black, blue, and purple. A water-loving pony named River Dream should have watery themed colors like blue, turquoise, and white. Just be creative! If you can't think of colors you like that go with them, just use your favorite colors. Not Helpful 3 Helpful Just think of music vocabulary.

For example, names like Treble Note or Harpstrings would be good. Pick a name related to the pony's cutie mark. Not Helpful 15 Helpful Look up reference photos or tutorials for help. You could always trace the base of a pony's body from online or from a coloring book so that you don't have to worry about getting the entire thing just right and can practice perfecting the face first. Not Helpful 5 Helpful It's totally up to you! Think of your pony's character and decide on events that shaped her character into what it is. You can also think about who your pony is related to and how that affected her.

Not Helpful 10 Helpful If it has Flash player it should work. Not Helpful 6 Helpful There hasn't been a history of users acquiring a computer virus from General Zoi's Pony Creator, but you should probably look for reviews or recommendations from people who have used it. Not Helpful 9 Helpful She consumes a lot of sugar and is excited most of the time. Not Helpful 20 Helpful What do I do if I am creating a pony and I need an eye template or image, but there isn't any and I can't draw them? Play around with the pony until you find something you like. On General Zoi, you can go on paint and make a cutie mark or download a picture and put it on your creation.

Not Helpful 11 Helpful Include your email address to get a message when this question is answered. Submit a Tip All tip submissions are carefully reviewed before being published. Related wikiHows How to. How to. More References 2. About This Article. Co-authored by:. Co-authors: Updated: August 10, Categories: Fandom. Article Summary X To create your own original My Little Pony character, start by deciding if your character will be an earth pony, unicorn, pegasus, or alicorn, which is a combination unicorn-pegasus.

Thanks to all authors for creating a page that has been read , times. Reader Success Stories Anonymous Jan 9, Even though I was not the best at drawing my pony, I had so much fun in the process! It is optimally performed at the 6- to 8-cell stage, where it can be used as an expansion of IVF to increase the number of available embryos. Dolly , a Finn-Dorset ewe , was the first mammal to have been successfully cloned from an adult somatic cell. Dolly was formed by taking a cell from the udder of her 6-year-old biological mother. It took attempts before an embryo was successful. She was born on 5 July but not announced to the world until 22 February Dolly was publicly significant because the effort showed that genetic material from a specific adult cell, designed to express only a distinct subset of its genes, can be redesigned to grow an entirely new organism.

Before this demonstration, it had been shown by John Gurdon that nuclei from differentiated cells could give rise to an entire organism after transplantation into an enucleated egg. The first mammalian cloning resulting in Dolly had a success rate of 29 embryos per fertilized eggs, which produced three lambs at birth, one of which lived. In a bovine experiment involving 70 cloned calves, one-third of the calves died quite young. The first successfully cloned horse, Prometea , took attempts. Notably, although the first [ clarification needed ] clones were frogs, no adult cloned frog has yet been produced from a somatic adult nucleus donor cell. There were early claims that Dolly had pathologies resembling accelerated aging. Scientists speculated that Dolly's death in was related to the shortening of telomeres , DNA-protein complexes that protect the end of linear chromosomes.

However, other researchers, including Ian Wilmut who led the team that successfully cloned Dolly, argue that Dolly's early death due to respiratory infection was unrelated to problems with the cloning process. This idea that the nuclei have not irreversibly aged was shown in to be true for mice. Dolly was named after performer Dolly Parton because the cells cloned to make her were from a mammary gland cell, and Parton is known for her ample cleavage. The modern cloning techniques involving nuclear transfer have been successfully performed on several species.

Notable experiments include:. Human cloning is the creation of a genetically identical copy of a human. The term is generally used to refer to artificial human cloning, which is the reproduction of human cells and tissues. It does not refer to the natural conception and delivery of identical twins. The possibility of human cloning has raised controversies. These ethical concerns have prompted several nations to pass legislation regarding human cloning and its legality.

As of right now, scientists have no intention of trying to clone people and they believe their results should spark a wider discussion about the laws and regulations the world needs to regulate cloning. Two commonly discussed types of theoretical human cloning are therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning. Therapeutic cloning would involve cloning cells from a human for use in medicine and transplants, and is an active area of research, but is not in medical practice anywhere in the world, as of [update]. Two common methods of therapeutic cloning that are being researched are somatic-cell nuclear transfer and, more recently, pluripotent stem cell induction.

Reproductive cloning would involve making an entire cloned human, instead of just specific cells or tissues. There are a variety of ethical positions regarding the possibilities of cloning, especially human cloning. While many of these views are religious in origin, the questions raised by cloning are faced by secular perspectives as well. Perspectives on human cloning are theoretical, as human therapeutic and reproductive cloning are not commercially used; animals are currently cloned in laboratories and in livestock production. Advocates support development of therapeutic cloning to generate tissues and whole organs to treat patients who otherwise cannot obtain transplants, [69] to avoid the need for immunosuppressive drugs , [68] and to stave off the effects of aging.

Opponents of cloning have concerns that technology is not yet developed enough to be safe [72] and that it could be prone to abuse leading to the generation of humans from whom organs and tissues would be harvested , [73] [74] as well as concerns about how cloned individuals could integrate with families and with society at large. Religious groups are divided, with some opposing the technology as usurping "God's place" and, to the extent embryos are used, destroying a human life; others support therapeutic cloning's potential life-saving benefits. Cloning of animals is opposed by animal-groups due to the number of cloned animals that suffer from malformations before they die, and while food from cloned animals has been approved by the US FDA, [79] [80] its use is opposed by groups concerned about food safety.

Cloning, or more precisely, the reconstruction of functional DNA from extinct species has, for decades, been a dream. Possible implications of this were dramatized in the novel Carnosaur and the novel Jurassic Park. Several tissue banks have come into existence, including the " Frozen zoo " at the San Diego Zoo , to store frozen tissue from the world's rarest and most endangered species.

In , a cow named Bessie gave birth to a cloned Asian gaur , an endangered species, but the calf died after two days. In , a banteng was successfully cloned, followed by three African wildcats from a thawed frozen embryo. These successes provided hope that similar techniques using surrogate mothers of another species might be used to clone extinct species. Anticipating this possibility, tissue samples from the last bucardo Pyrenean ibex were frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after it died in Researchers are also considering cloning endangered species such as the Giant panda and Cheetah.

In , geneticists at the Australian Museum announced that they had replicated DNA of the thylacine Tasmanian tiger , at the time extinct for about 65 years, using polymerase chain reaction. On 15 May it was announced that the thylacine project would be revived, with new participation from researchers in New South Wales and Victoria. In , for the first time, an extinct animal, the Pyrenean ibex mentioned above was cloned, at the Centre of Food Technology and Research of Aragon, using the preserved frozen cell nucleus of the skin samples from and domestic goat egg-cells. The ibex died shortly after birth due to physical defects in its lungs.

One of the most anticipated targets for cloning was once the woolly mammoth , but attempts to extract DNA from frozen mammoths have been unsuccessful, though a joint Russo-Japanese team is currently working toward this goal. In January , it was reported by Yomiuri Shimbun that a team of scientists headed by Akira Iritani of Kyoto University had built upon research by Dr. Wakayama, saying that they will extract DNA from a mammoth carcass that had been preserved in a Russian laboratory and insert it into the egg cells of an Asian elephant in hopes of producing a mammoth embryo.

The researchers said they hoped to produce a baby mammoth within six years. Scientists at the University of Newcastle and University of New South Wales announced in March that the very recently extinct gastric-brooding frog would be the subject of a cloning attempt to resurrect the species. After an eight-year project involving the use of a pioneering cloning technique, Japanese researchers created 25 generations of healthy cloned mice with normal lifespans, demonstrating that clones are not intrinsically shorter-lived than naturally born animals. Some posited that Dolly the sheep may have aged more quickly than naturally born animals, as she died relatively early for a sheep at the age of six.

Ultimately, her death was attributed to a respiratory illness, and the "advanced aging" theory is disputed. A detailed study released in and less detailed studies by others suggest that once cloned animals get past the first month or two of life they are generally healthy. However, early pregnancy loss and neonatal losses are still greater with cloning than natural conception or assisted reproduction IVF. Current research is attempting to overcome these problems.

Sex as a reproductive strategy appears to be crucial for the continuity of life because of its essential role in maintaining the integrity and well-being of the genetic material of the germline. The asexual process of cloning, in contrast, is deficient in DNA repair processes particularly homologous recombinational repair associated with meiosis. Far from being rejuvenating, commitment to clonal reproduction can threaten the continuing evolutionary well being of genes , cells , organisms and even species. Discussion of cloning in the popular media often presents the subject negatively. In an article in the 8 November article of Time , cloning was portrayed in a negative way, modifying Michelangelo's Creation of Adam to depict Adam with five identical hands.

The concept of cloning, particularly human cloning, has featured a wide variety of science fiction works. An early fictional depiction of cloning is Bokanovsky's Process which features in Aldous Huxley 's dystopian novel Brave New World. The process is applied to fertilized human eggs in vitro , causing them to split into identical genetic copies of the original. The process of cloning is represented variously in fiction. Many works depict the artificial creation of humans by a method of growing cells from a tissue or DNA sample; the replication may be instantaneous, or take place through slow growth of human embryos in artificial wombs. In the long-running British television series Doctor Who , the Fourth Doctor and his companion Leela were cloned in a matter of seconds from DNA samples " The Invisible Enemy ", and then — in an apparent homage to the film Fantastic Voyage — shrunk to microscopic size to enter the Doctor's body to combat an alien virus.

The clones in this story are short-lived, and can only survive a matter of minutes before they expire. Cloning humans from body parts is also a common theme in science fiction. Cloning features strongly among the science fiction conventions parodied in Woody Allen's Sleeper , the plot of which centres around an attempt to clone an assassinated dictator from his disembodied nose. After the death of her beloved year-old Coton de Tulear named Samantha in late , Barbra Streisand announced that she had cloned the dog, and was now "waiting for [the two cloned pups] to get older so [she] can see if they have [Samantha's] brown eyes and her seriousness". Science fiction has used cloning, most commonly and specifically human cloning , to raise the controversial questions of identity.

The story, set in the near future, is structured around the conflict between a father Salter and his sons Bernard 1, Bernard 2, and Michael Black — two of whom are clones of the first one. In , a Japanese television series named "Bunshin" was created. The story's main character, Mariko, is a woman studying child welfare in Hokkaido. She grew up always doubtful about the love from her mother, who looked nothing like her and who died nine years before. One day, she finds some of her mother's belongings at a relative's house, and heads to Tokyo to seek out the truth behind her birth. She later discovered that she was a clone. In the television series Orphan Black , cloning is used as a scientific study on the behavioral adaptation of the clones.

Cloning has been used in fiction as a way of recreating historical figures. In Michael Crichton 's novel Jurassic Park , which spawned a series of Jurassic Park feature films , a bioengineering company develops a technique to resurrect extinct species of dinosaurs by creating cloned creatures using DNA extracted from fossils. The cloned dinosaurs are used to populate the Jurassic Park wildlife park for the entertainment of visitors. The scheme goes disastrously wrong when the dinosaurs escape their enclosures.

Despite being selectively cloned as females to prevent them from breeding, the dinosaurs develop the ability to reproduce through parthenogenesis. The use of cloning for military purposes has also been explored in several fictional works. In Doctor Who , an alien race of armour-clad, warlike beings called Sontarans was introduced in the serial " The Time Warrior ". Sontarans are depicted as squat, bald creatures who have been genetically engineered for combat. Their weak spot is a "probic vent", a small socket at the back of their neck which is associated with the cloning process.

The film Star Wars was set against the backdrop of a historical conflict called the Clone Wars. The events of this war were not fully explored until the prequel films Attack of the Clones and Revenge of the Sith , which depict a space war waged by a massive army of heavily armoured clone troopers that leads to the foundation of the Galactic Empire. Cloned soldiers are "manufactured" on an industrial scale, genetically conditioned for obedience and combat effectiveness. It is also revealed that the popular character Boba Fett originated as a clone of Jango Fett , a mercenary who served as the genetic template for the clone troopers. A recurring sub-theme of cloning fiction is the use of clones as a supply of organs for transplantation.

The Kazuo Ishiguro novel Never Let Me Go and the film adaption [] are set in an alternate history in which cloned humans are created for the sole purpose of providing organ donations to naturally born humans, despite the fact that they are fully sentient and self-aware. The film The Island [] revolves around a similar plot, with the exception that the clones are unaware of the reason for their existence. The exploitation of human clones for dangerous and undesirable work was examined in the British science fiction film Moon.

She is one of thousands created for manual and emotional labor ; Sonmi herself works as a server in a restaurant. She later discovers that the sole source of food for clones, called 'Soap', is manufactured from the clones themselves. In the film Us , at some point prior to the s, the US Government creates clones of every citizen of the United States with the intention of using them to control their original counterparts, akin to voodoo dolls. This fails, as they were able to copy bodies, but unable to copy the souls of those they cloned.

The project is abandoned and the clones are trapped exactly mirroring their above-ground counterparts' actions for generations. In the present day, the clones launch a surprise attack and manage to complete a mass-genocide of their unaware counterparts. They were used as target practice by Accelerator, just to level up, as killing the original multiple times is impossible. The experiment ended when Toma Kamijo saved and foiled the experiment. The remaining clones have been dispersed everywhere in the world to conduct further experiments to expand their lifespans, save for at least 10 who remained in Academy City, and the last clone, who was not fully developed when the experiment stopped.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the cloning of human beings, see Human cloning. For other uses, see Cloning disambiguation. Process of producing genetically identical individuals of an organism. Main article: Molecular cloning. Main article: Somatic-cell nuclear transfer. See also: Asexual reproduction , Cuttings plants , and vegetative reproduction. For the use of cloning in viticulture, see Propagation of grapevines. Main article: Dolly sheep.

Include your email address Transvaginal Ultrasound Research Paper get a message when this question is Zebras Research Paper. Guns, germs, and Steel: the fates of human societies. What they are sensing, smelling, are Zebras Research Paper like acetic acid — the Zebras Research Paper that gives vinegar Zebras Research Paper pungent punch. Curling recalled her saying. It turns out that the domesticable large Eurasian species have a follow-the-leader Zebras Research Paper structure based on a dominance hierarchy. Retrieved 5 December

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