⚡ How Did Justinian Influence The Byzantine Empire
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Garland, Lynda Vasiliev, History of the Byzantine Empire: — p. The impoverishment of Italy and the weakened Byzantine military made it impossible for the empire to hold the peninsula. The willingness of the Cretan School to accept Western influence was atypical; in most How Did Justinian Influence The Byzantine Empire the post-Byzantine world "as an instrument of ethnic cohesiveness, art became assertively conservative during the Turcocratia " period of Ottoman rule. Constantinople by How Did Justinian Influence The Byzantine Empire stage How To Learn About The Holocaust underpopulated and dilapidated. Their first objective was the praetorian, How Did Justinian Influence The Byzantine Empire was, How Did Justinian Influence The Byzantine Empire, the headquarters of Constantinople's Benefits Of Interior Design department and the municipal jail.
The Reign of Justinian I and the Byzantine Empire
Three canons of the Quinisext Council of addressed controversies in this area: prohibition of the representation of the cross on church pavements Canon 73 , prohibition of the representation of Christ as a lamb Canon 82 , and a general injunction against "pictures, whether they are in paintings or in what way so ever, which attract the eye and corrupt the mind, and incite it to the enkindling of base pleasures" Canon Intense debate over the role of art in worship led eventually to the period of " Byzantine iconoclasm.
In , an underwater earthquake between the islands of Thera and Therasia was interpreted by Emperor Leo III as a sign of God's anger, and may have led Leo to remove a famous icon of Christ from the Chalke Gate outside the imperial palace. The Council of Hieria , convened under Constantine in , proscribed the manufacture of icons of Christ. This inaugurated the Iconoclastic period , which lasted, with interruptions, until While iconoclasm severely restricted the role of religious art, and led to the removal of some earlier apse mosaics and possibly the sporadic destruction of portable icons, it never constituted a total ban on the production of figural art. Ample literary sources indicate that secular art i. Major churches dating to this period include Hagia Eirene in Constantinople, which was rebuilt in the s following its destruction by the Constantinople earthquake.
The interior of Hagia Eirene, which is dominated by a large mosaic cross in the apse, is one of the best-preserved examples of iconoclastic church decoration. Certain churches built outside of the empire during this period, but decorated in a figural, "Byzantine," style, may also bear witness to the continuing activities of Byzantine artists. Particularly important in this regard are the original mosaics of the Palatine Chapel in Aachen since either destroyed or heavily restored and the frescoes in the Church of Maria foris portas in Castelseprio.
The rulings of the Council of Hieria were reversed by a new church council in , celebrated to this day in the Eastern Orthodox Church as the "Triumph of Orthodoxy. Later in the same year, the Emperor Basil I , called "the Macedonian," acceded to the throne; as a result the following period of Byzantine art has sometimes been called the " Macedonian Renaissance ", although the term is doubly problematic it was neither " Macedonian ", nor, strictly speaking, a " Renaissance ".
In the 9th and 10th centuries, the Empire's military situation improved, and patronage of art and architecture increased. New churches were commissioned, and the standard architectural form the " cross-in-square " and decorative scheme of the Middle Byzantine church were standardised. There was a revival of interest in the depiction of subjects from classical Greek mythology as on the Veroli Casket and in the use of a "classical" Hellenistic styles to depict religious, and particularly Old Testament, subjects of which the Paris Psalter and the Joshua Roll are important examples.
The Macedonian period also saw a revival of the late antique technique of ivory carving. Many ornate ivory triptychs and diptychs survive, such as the Harbaville Triptych and a triptych at Luton Hoo , dating from the reign of Nicephorus Phocas. The Macedonian emperors were followed by the Komnenian dynasty , beginning with the reign of Alexios I Komnenos in Byzantium had recently suffered a period of severe dislocation following the Battle of Manzikert in and the subsequent loss of Asia Minor to the Turks.
However, the Komnenoi brought stability to the empire — and during the course of the twelfth century their energetic campaigning did much to restore the fortunes of the empire. The Komnenoi were great patrons of the arts, and with their support Byzantine artists continued to move in the direction of greater humanism and emotion, of which the Theotokos of Vladimir , the cycle of mosaics at Daphni , and the murals at Nerezi yield important examples.
Ivory sculpture and other expensive mediums of art gradually gave way to frescoes and icons, which for the first time gained widespread popularity across the Empire. Apart from painted icons, there were other varieties - notably the mosaic and ceramic ones. For instance, Venice's Basilica of St Mark , begun in , was based on the great Church of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople, now destroyed, and is thus an echo of the age of Justinian. The acquisitive habits of the Venetians mean that the basilica is also a great museum of Byzantine artworks of all kinds e. With images of Cupids 10th century , Walters Art Museum.
Centuries of continuous Roman political tradition and Hellenistic civilization underwent a crisis in with the sacking of Constantinople by the Venetian and French knights of the Fourth Crusade , a disaster from which the Empire recovered in albeit in a severely weakened state. The destruction by sack or subsequent neglect of the city's secular architecture in particular has left us with an imperfect understanding of Byzantine art. Although the Byzantines regained the city in , the Empire was thereafter a small and weak state confined to the Greek peninsula and the islands of the Aegean.
During their half-century of exile, however, the last great flowing of Anatolian Hellenism began. As Nicaea emerged as the center of opposition under the Laskaris emperors, it spawned a renaissance, attracting scholars, poets, and artists from across the Byzantine world. A glittering court emerged as the dispossessed intelligentsia found in the Hellenic side of their traditions a pride and identity unsullied by association with the hated "latin" enemy. The icons, which became a favoured medium for artistic expression, were characterized by a less austere attitude, new appreciation for purely decorative qualities of painting and meticulous attention to details, earning the popular name of the Paleologan Mannerism for the period in general.
Venice came to control Byzantine Crete by , and Byzantine artistic traditions continued long after the Ottoman conquest of the last Byzantine successor state in The Cretan school , as it is today known, gradually introduced Western elements into its style, and exported large numbers of icons to the West. The tradition's most famous artist was El Greco. The splendour of Byzantine art was always in the mind of early medieval Western artists and patrons, and many of the most important movements in the period were conscious attempts to produce art fit to stand next to both classical Roman and contemporary Byzantine art. This was especially the case for the imperial Carolingian art and Ottonian art.
Luxury products from the Empire were highly valued, and reached for example the royal Anglo-Saxon Sutton Hoo burial in Suffolk of the s, which contains several pieces of silver. Byzantine silks were especially valued and large quantities were distributed as diplomatic gifts from Constantinople. There are records of Byzantine artists working in the West, especially during the period of iconoclasm, and some works, like the frescos at Castelseprio and miniatures in the Vienna Coronation Gospels , seem to have been produced by such figures.
In particular, teams of mosaic artists were dispatched as diplomatic gestures by emperors to Italy, where they often trained locals to continue their work in a style heavily influenced by Byzantium. Venice and Norman Sicily were particular centres of Byzantine influence. The earliest surviving panel paintings in the West were in a style heavily influenced by contemporary Byzantine icons, until a distinctive Western style began to develop in Italy in the Trecento ; the traditional and still influential narrative of Vasari and others has the story of Western painting begin as a breakaway by Cimabue and then Giotto from the shackles of the Byzantine tradition.
In general, Byzantine artistic influence on Europe was in steep decline by the 14th century if not earlier, despite the continued importance of migrated Byzantine scholars in the Renaissance in other areas. Islamic art began with artists and craftsmen mostly trained in Byzantine styles, and though figurative content was greatly reduced, Byzantine decorative styles remained a great influence on Islamic art, and Byzantine artists continued to be imported for important works for some time, especially for mosaics. The Byzantine era properly defined came to an end with the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks in , but by this time the Byzantine cultural heritage had been widely diffused, carried by the spread of Orthodox Christianity, to Bulgaria , Serbia , Romania and, most importantly, to Russia , which became the centre of the Orthodox world following the Ottoman conquest of the Balkans.
Even under Ottoman rule, Byzantine traditions in icon-painting and other small-scale arts survived, especially in the Venetian-ruled Crete and Rhodes , where a "post-Byzantine" style under increasing Western influence survived for a further two centuries, producing artists including El Greco whose training was in the Cretan School which was the most vigorous post-Byzantine school, exporting great numbers of icons to Europe. The willingness of the Cretan School to accept Western influence was atypical; in most of the post-Byzantine world "as an instrument of ethnic cohesiveness, art became assertively conservative during the Turcocratia " period of Ottoman rule.
Simeon died suddenly in , however, and Bulgarian power collapsed with him. Bulgaria and Byzantium entered a long period of peaceful relations, and the Empire was now free to concentrate on the eastern front against the Muslims. Bulgarian resistance revived under the leadership of the Cometopuli dynasty , but the new emperor Basil II reigned — AD made the submission of the Bulgarians his primary goal.
Basil's first expedition against Bulgaria however resulted in a humiliating defeat at the Gates of Trajan. For the next few years, the emperor would be preoccupied with internal revolts in Anatolia , while the Bulgarians expanded their realm in the Balkans. The war was to drag on for nearly twenty years. The Byzantine victories of Spercheios and Skopje decisively weakened the Bulgarian army, and in annual campaigns, Basil methodically reduced the Bulgarian strongholds. Eventually, at the Battle of Kleidion in the Bulgarians were completely defeated.
When Tsar Samuil saw the broken remains of his once gallant army, he died of shock. By , the last Bulgarian strongholds had surrendered, and the country became part of the empire. This epic victory restored the Danube frontier, which had not been held since the days of the emperor Heraclius. Between and the Empire developed a mixed relationship with the new state of Kiev Rus that emerged to the north across the Black Sea.
Kiev Princes were often married into the Byzantine imperial family and Constantinople often employed Princes' armies, most notably Vladimir the Great presented Byzantine with the famous Varangian Guard — an army of vicious Scandinavian mercenaries. Some believe that it was done in exchange for the marriage to Basil's sister, porphyrogenita Anna to Vladimir the Great. These relationships were not always friendly. During those three hundred years Constantinople and other Byzantine cities were attacked several times by the armies of Kiev Rus see Rus'-Byzantine Wars.
Kiev never went far enough to actually endanger the Empire, those wars were only a tool to force the Byzantine to sign increasingly favorable trade treaties, the texts of which are recorded in the Primary Chronicle , Rus'—Byzantine Treaty ,  and other historical documents. Constantinople at the same time constantly played Kiev Rus, Bulgaria, and Poland against each other.
The Byzantine influence on Kiev Rus cannot be underestimated. Byzantine-style writing became a standard for the Cyrillic alphabet, Byzantine architecture was dominating in Kiev, and as a main trading partner Byzantine played a critical role in the establishment, rise and fall of Kiev Rus. Yet even these victories were not enough; Basil considered the continued Arab occupation of Sicily to be an outrage. Accordingly, he planned to reconquer the island, which had belonged to the empire for over years c — c. However, his death in put an end to the project. Leo VI achieved the complete codification of Byzantine law in Greek.
This monumental work of 60 volumes became the foundation of all subsequent Byzantine law and is still studied today. Leo also reformed the administration of the Empire, redrawing the borders of the administrative subdivisions the Themata , or "Themes" and tidying up the system of ranks and privileges, as well as regulating the behavior of the various trade guilds in Constantinople. Leo's reform did much to reduce the previous fragmentation of the Empire, which henceforth had one center of power, Constantinople.
However, the increasing military success of the Empire greatly enriched and empowered the provincial nobility with respect to the peasantry, who were essentially reduced to a state of serfdom. Under the Macedonian emperors, the city of Constantinople flourished, becoming the largest and wealthiest city in Europe, with a population of approximately , in the 9th and 10th centuries.
The Macedonian emperors also increased the Empire's wealth by fostering trade with Western Europe, particularly through the sale of silk and metalwork. The 11th century was also momentous for its religious events. In , relations between Greek-speaking Eastern and Latin-speaking Western traditions within the Christian Church reached a terminal crisis. Although there was a formal declaration of institutional separation, on 16 July, when three papal legates entered the Hagia Sophia during Divine Liturgy on a Saturday afternoon and placed a bull of excommunication on the altar, the so-called Great Schism was actually the culmination of centuries of gradual separation.
Although the schism was brought about by doctrinal disputes in particular, Eastern refusal to accept the Western Church doctrine of the filioque , or double procession of the Holy Spirit , disputes over administration and political issues had simmered for centuries. The formal separation of the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Western Catholic Church would have wide-ranging consequences for the future of Byzantium. Byzantium soon fell into a period of difficulties, caused to a large extent by the undermining of the theme system and the neglect of the military.
Mercenaries , however, were expensive and as the threat of invasion receded in the 10th century, so did the need for maintaining large garrisons and expensive fortifications. None of his immediate successors had any particular military or political talent and the administration of the Empire increasingly fell into the hands of the civil service. Efforts to revive the Byzantine economy only resulted in inflation and a debased gold coinage. The army was now seen as both an unnecessary expense and a political threat.
Therefore, native troops were cashiered and replaced by foreign mercenaries on specific contract. At the same time, the Empire was faced with new, ambitious enemies. Byzantine provinces in southern Italy faced the Normans , who arrived in Italy at the beginning of the 11th century. The allied forces of Melus of Bari and the Normans were defeated at the Battle of Cannae in , and two decades later Michael IV the Paphlagonian equipped an expedition for the reconquest of Sicily from the Arabs. Although the campaign was initially successful, the reconquest of Sicily was not accomplished, mainly because George Maniaces , the commander of the Byzantine forces, was recalled when he was suspected of having ambitious schemes. During a period of strife between Constantinople and Rome which ended in the East—West Schism of , the Normans began to advance, slowly but steadily, into Byzantine Italy.
It was in Asia Minor, however, that the greatest disaster would take place. The Seljuq Turks made their first explorations across the Byzantine frontier into Armenia in and in The emergency lent weight to the military aristocracy in Anatolia who, in , secured the election of one of their own, Romanos Diogenes , as emperor. In the summer of , Romanos undertook a massive eastern campaign to draw the Seljuks into a general engagement with the Byzantine army.
At Manzikert Romanos not only suffered a surprise defeat at the hands of Sultan Alp Arslan , but was also captured. Alp Arslan treated him with respect, and imposed no harsh terms on the Byzantines. By the Seljuks expanded their rule over virtually the entire Anatolian plateau from Armenia in the east to Bithynia in the west and founded their capital in Nicea. In the meantime, the Byzantine presence in southern Italy had been wiped out by the Normans.
Reggio , the capital of the tagma of Calabria , was captured by Robert Guiscard in At the time the Byzantines controlled only a few of coastal cities in Apulia. Otranto fell in , the same year in which the siege of Bari the capital of the catepanate of Italy begun. After the Byzantines had been defeated in a series of battles, and any attempt to relief the city had failed, Bari was surrendered in April This event ended the Byzantine presence in southern Italy. During the Komnenian, or Comnenian, period from about to about , the five emperors of the Komnenos dynasty Alexios I, John II, Manuel I, Alexios II, and Andronikos I presided over a sustained, though ultimately incomplete, restoration of the military, territorial, economic, and political position of the Byzantine Empire.
The Empire under the Komnenoi played a key role in the history of the Crusades in the Holy Land, which Alexios I had helped bring about, while also exerting enormous cultural and political influence in Europe, the Near East, and the lands around the Mediterranean Sea under John and Manuel. Contact between Byzantium and the "Latin" West, including the Crusader states, increased significantly during the Komnenian period. Venetian and other Italian traders became resident in large numbers in Constantinople and the empire there were an estimated 60, Latins in Constantinople alone, out of a population of three to four hundred thousand , and their presence together with the numerous Latin mercenaries who were employed by Manuel helped to spread Byzantine technology, art, literature and culture throughout the Latin West, while also leading to a flow of Western ideas and customs into the Empire.
In terms of prosperity and cultural life, the Komnenian period was one of the peaks in Byzantine history,  and Constantinople remained the leading city of the Christian world in size, wealth, and culture. After Manzikert, a partial recovery referred to as the Komnenian restoration was made possible by the Komnenian dynasty. The Komnenoi attained power again under Alexios I in From the outset of his reign, Alexios faced a formidable attack by the Normans under Robert Guiscard and his son Bohemund of Taranto , who captured Dyrrhachium and Corfu , and laid siege to Larissa in Thessaly. Robert Guiscard's death in temporarily eased the Norman problem.
The following year, the Seljuq sultan died, and the sultanate was split by internal rivalries. By his own efforts, Alexios defeated the Pechenegs ; they were caught by surprise and annihilated at the Battle of Levounion on 28 April Having achieved stability in the West, Alexios could turn his attention to the severe economic difficulties and the disintegration of the Empire's traditional defences. At the Council of Piacenza in , envoys from Alexios spoke to Pope Urban II about the suffering of the Christians of the East, and underscored that without help from the West they would continue to suffer under Muslim rule.
The response in Western Europe was overwhelming. Alexios had anticipated help in the form of mercenary forces from the West, but he was totally unprepared for the immense and undisciplined force which soon arrived in Byzantine territory. It was no comfort to Alexios to learn that four of the eight leaders of the main body of the Crusade were Normans, among them Bohemund. Since the crusade had to pass through Constantinople, however, the Emperor had some control over it. He required its leaders to swear to restore to the empire any towns or territories they might conquer from the Turks on their way to the Holy Land. In return, he gave them guides and a military escort. Alexios was able to recover a number of important cities and islands, and in fact much of western Asia Minor.
Nevertheless, the crusaders believed their oaths were invalidated when Alexios did not help them during the siege of Antioch he had in fact set out on the road to Antioch but had been persuaded to turn back by Stephen of Blois , who assured him that all was lost and that the expedition had already failed. Alexios' son John II Komnenos succeeded him in , and was to rule until John was a pious and dedicated emperor who was determined to undo the damage his empire had suffered at the battle of Manzikert , half a century earlier. In the course of his twenty-five year reign, John made alliances with the Holy Roman Empire in the west, decisively defeated the Pechenegs at the Battle of Beroia ,  and personally led numerous campaigns against the Turks in Asia Minor.
John's campaigns fundamentally changed the balance of power in the east, forcing the Turks onto the defensive and restoring to the Byzantines many towns, fortresses and cities right across the peninsula. He defeated the Danishmend emirate of Melitene , and reconquered all of Cilicia , while forcing Raymond of Poitiers , Prince of Antioch , to recognize Byzantine suzerainty. In an effort to demonstrate the Byzantine emperor's role as the leader of the Christian world, John marched into the Holy Land at the head of the combined forces of Byzantium and the Crusader states; yet despite the great vigour with which he pressed the campaign, John's hopes were disappointed by the treachery of his Crusader allies.
Raymond was emboldened to invade Cilicia, but he was defeated and forced to go to Constantinople to beg mercy from the new emperor. John's chosen heir was his fourth son, Manuel I Komnenos , who campaigned aggressively against his neighbours both in the west and in the east. In Palestine, he allied himself with the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem and sent a large fleet to participate in a combined invasion of Fatimid Egypt. Manuel reinforced his position as overlord of the Crusader states, with his hegemony over Antioch and Jerusalem secured by agreement with Raynald , Prince of Antioch, and Amalric , King of Jerusalem respectively.
Despite this military setback, Manuel's armies successfully invaded the Kingdom of Hungary in , defeating the Hungarians at the Battle of Sirmium. By nearly the whole of the eastern Adriatic coast lay in Manuel's hands. In the east, however, Manuel suffered a major defeat at the Battle of Myriokephalon , in , against the Turks. Yet the losses were quickly made good, and in the following year Manuel's forces inflicted a defeat upon a force of "picked Turks".
John and Manuel pursued active military policies, and both deployed considerable resources on sieges and on city defenses; aggressive fortification policies were at the heart of their imperial military policies. From c. This allowed the Western provinces to achieve an economic revival which continued until the close of the century. It has been argued that Byzantium under the Komnenian rule was more prosperous than at any time since the Persian invasions of the 7th century. During the 12th century population levels rose and extensive tracts of new agricultural land were brought into production. Archaeological evidence from both Europe and Asia Minor shows a considerable increase in the size of urban settlements, together with a notable upsurge in new towns.
Trade was also flourishing; the Venetians, the Genoese and others opened up the ports of the Aegean to commerce, shipping goods from the Crusader kingdoms of Outremer and Fatimid Egypt to the west and trading with the Byzantine Empire via Constantinople. In artistic terms, there was a revival in mosaic , and regional schools of architecture began producing many distinctive styles that drew on a range of cultural influences. In Eustathius of Thessalonica Byzantine humanism found its most characteristic expression.
Alexios was highly incompetent at the office, but it was his mother, Maria of Antioch , and her Frankish background that made his regency unpopular. Utilizing his good looks and his immense popularity with the army, he marched on to Constantinople in August , and incited a massacre of the Latins. This troubled succession weakened the dynastic continuity and solidarity on which the strength of the Byzantine state had come to rely.
Andronikos began his reign well; in particular, the measures he took to reform the government of the empire have been praised by historians. According to George Ostrogorsky , Andronikos was determined to root out corruption: Under his rule the sale of offices ceased; selection was based on merit, rather than favoritism; officials were paid an adequate salary so as to reduce the temptation of bribery.
In the provinces Andronikos' reforms produced a speedy and marked improvement. The aristocrats were infuriated against him, and to make matters worse, Andronikos seems to have become increasingly unbalanced; executions and violence became increasingly common, and his reign turned into a reign of terror. The struggle against the aristocracy turned into wholesale slaughter, while the emperor resorted to ever more ruthless measures to shore up his regime. Yet none of these troubles would compare to William II of Sicily 's invasion force of ships and 80, men, arriving in He was finally overthrown when Isaac Angelos , surviving an imperial assassination attempt, seized power with the aid of the people and had Andronikos killed.
The reign of Isaac II, and, still more, that of his brother Alexios III , saw the collapse of what remained of the centralized machinery of Byzantine government and defense. Although, the Normans were driven out of Greece, in the Vlachs and Bulgars began a rebellion that was to lead to the formation of the Second Bulgarian Empire. The mismanagement of the Third Crusade clearly demonstrated Byzantium's weaknesses under the Angeli. Byzantine authority was severely weakened, and the growing power vacuum at the center of the empire encouraged fragmentation. There is evidence that some Komnenian heirs had set up a semi-independent state in Trebizond before In , Pope Innocent III broached the subject of a new crusade through legates and encyclical letters. The crusader army that arrived at Venice in the summer of was somewhat smaller than had been anticipated, and there were not sufficient funds to pay the Venetians, whose fleet was hired by the crusaders to take them to Egypt.
Venetian policy under the aging and blind but still ambitious Doge Enrico Dandolo was potentially at variance with that of the Pope and the crusaders, because Venice was closely related commercially with Egypt. Both Boniface and Philip had married into the Byzantine imperial family. In fact, Philip's brother-in-law, Alexios Angelos , son of the deposed and blinded emperor Isaac II Angelos , had appeared in Europe seeking aid and had made contacts with the crusaders. Alexios offered to reunite the Byzantine church with Rome, pay the crusaders , silver marks, and join the crusade with , silver marks and all the supplies they needed to get to Egypt. Alexios III made no preparations for the defense of the city; thus, when the Venetian fleet entered the waters of Constantinople on 24 June , they encountered little resistance.
Innocent reprimanded the leaders of the crusaders, and ordered them to proceed forthwith to the Holy Land. When in late November Alexios IV announced that his promises were hard to keep as the empire was short on funds he had managed to pay roughly half of the promised amount of , silver marks, and could not fulfil his promise that he would cover the Venetians' rent of the fleet for the crusaders. Meanwhile, internal opposition to Alexios IV grew, and, on 25 January , one of his courtiers, Alexios Doukas killed him, and took the throne himself as Alexios V; Isaac died soon afterwards, probably naturally.
They decided that 12 electors six Venetians and six crusaders should choose a Latin emperor  of Romania. The crusaders again took the city on 13 April , and Constantinople was subjected to pillage and massacre by the rank and file for three days. Many priceless icons, relics, and other objects later turned up in Western Europe , a large number in Venice. According to Choniates, a prostitute was even set up on the Patriarchal throne. But the situation was beyond his control, especially after his legate, on his own initiative, had absolved the crusaders from their vow to proceed to the Holy Land.
The lands divided up among the leaders included most of the former Byzantine possessions, though resistance would continue through the Byzantine remnants of the Nicaea , Trebizond , and Epirus. After the sack of Constantinople in by Latin Crusaders , two Byzantine successor states were established: the Empire of Nicaea and the Despotate of Epirus. A third, the Empire of Trebizond , was created a few weeks before the sack of Constantinople by Alexios I of Trebizond.
Of the three successor states, Epirus and Nicaea stood the best chance of reclaiming Constantinople. The Nicaean Empire struggled to survive the next few decades, however, and by the midth century it had lost much of southern Anatolia. However, the Mongol Invasion also gave Nicaea a temporary respite from Seljuk attacks allowing it to concentrate on the Latin Empire to the north. The Empire of Nicaea, founded by the Laskarid dynasty , managed to reclaim Constantinople from the Latins in and defeat Epirus. This led to a short-lived revival of Byzantine fortunes under Michael VIII Palaiologos , but the war-ravaged empire was ill-equipped to deal with the enemies that now surrounded it.
In order to maintain his campaigns against the Latins, Michael pulled troops from Asia Minor, and levied crippling taxes on the peasantry, causing much resentment. Rather than holding on to his possessions in Asia Minor, Michael chose to expand the Empire, gaining only short-term success. To avoid another sacking of the capital by the Latins, he forced the Church to submit to Rome, again a temporary solution for which the peasantry hated Michael and Constantinople. However, the use of mercenaries by Andronikos II would often backfire, with the Catalan Company ravaging the countryside and increasing resentment towards Constantinople. Societal infighting weakened the military power of the Byzantine Empire in the 14th century, including two major civil wars beginning in and The civil war of —28 was led by a grandson of the Byzantine Emperor Andronikos II and supported by Byzantine magnates who often clashed with the centralized authority.
The war was inconclusive and ended with Andronikos III being made co-emperor with his grandfather. However, the civil war allowed the Ottoman Turks to make notable gains in Anatolia and to set up their capital in Bursa , a hundred kilometers from Constantinople. After the initial conflict, Andronikos III dethroned his grandfather and became sole emperor. Following the death of Andronikos III in another civil war broke out, lasting until The de facto leader of the Byzantine Empire, John Cantacuzenus , was not only a close associate of the deceased emperor but an extremely wealthy landowner, and he wanted to become regent instead.
In fact when aristocrats in proposed that the city of Thessalonica be turned over to Cantacuzenus, anti-aristocrats seized the city and governed it until The civil war led to the exploitation of the Byzantine Empire by the emerging Serbian Empire. Cantacuzenus conquered Constantinople in and ended the civil war. While these mercenaries were of some use, in they seized Gallipoli from the Byzantines. These two momentous civil wars severely diminished the Byzantine empires military strength and allowed its opportunistic enemies to make substantial gains into Byzantine territory.
Later arose a smaller conflict, from —79 , and a revolt in , and the Byzantine Empire was becoming surrounded by the Ottoman advance. Things went worse for Byzantium, when, during the civil war, an earthquake at Gallipoli in devastated the fort, allowing the Turks the very next day to cross into Europe. Following the Battle of Kosovo , much of the Balkans became dominated by the Ottomans. The Emperors appealed to the west for help, but the Pope would only consider sending aid in return for a reunion of the Eastern Orthodox Church with the See of Rome. Church unity was considered, and occasionally accomplished by imperial decree, but the Orthodox citizenry and clergy intensely resented Roman authority and the Latin Rite.
Constantinople by this stage was underpopulated and dilapidated. The population of the city had collapsed so severely that it was now little more than a cluster of villages separated by fields. On 2 April , the Sultan's army of some 80, men and large numbers of irregulars laid siege to the city. The last Byzantine emperor, Constantine XI Palaiologos, was last seen casting off his imperial regalia and throwing himself into hand-to-hand combat after the walls of the city were taken. By the time of the fall of Constantinople, the only remaining territory of the Byzantine Empire was the Despotate of the Morea , which was ruled by brothers of the last Emperor and continued on as a tributary state to the Ottomans. Incompetent rule, failure to pay the annual tribute and a revolt against the Ottomans finally led to Mehmed II 's invasion of Morea in May ; he conquered the entire Despotate by the summer.
The Empire of Trebizond , which had split away from the Byzantine Empire in , became the last remnant and last de facto successor state to the Byzantine Empire. Efforts by the Emperor David to recruit European powers for an anti-Ottoman crusade provoked war between the Ottomans and Trebizond in the summer of After a monthlong siege, David surrendered the city of Trebizond on August 14, With the fall of Trebizond, the Principality of Theodoro soon followed by the end of , the last remnant of the Roman Empire was extinguished. He lived in the Morea Peloponnese until its fall in , then escaped to Rome where he lived under the protection of the Papal States for the remainder of his life. However, no one ever invoked the title after Andreas's death, thus he is considered to be the last titular Roman Emperor.
Mehmed II and his successors continued to consider themselves heirs to the Roman Empire until the demise of the Ottoman Empire in the early 20th century. Meanwhile, the Danubian Principalities whose rulers also considered themselves the heirs of the Eastern Roman Emperors  harboured Orthodox refugees, including some Byzantine nobles. Vlachs and Romanians are speaking a Romance language and they regard themselves as the descendants of the ancient Romans who conquered the South East parts of Europe. Today the Vlachs do not have a country of their own. He had married Andreas' sister, Sophia Paleologue , whose grandson, Ivan IV , would become the first Tsar of Russia tsar , or czar , meaning caesar , is a term traditionally applied by Slavs to the Byzantine Emperors.
Their successors supported the idea that Moscow was the proper heir to Rome and Constantinople. The idea of the Russian Empire as the new, Third Rome was kept alive until its demise with the Russian Revolution of From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Aspect of history. Part of a series on the. Art Government Economy Army Navy. Main articles: Tetrarchy and Diocletian. Main article: Byzantine Empire under the Constantinian and Valentinian dynasties. Main article: Byzantine Empire under the Leonid dynasty. Main article: Byzantine Empire under the Justinian dynasty. Main article: Byzantium under the Heraclians. Main article: Twenty Years' Anarchy. Main article: Byzantine Empire under the Isaurian dynasty. See also: Byzantine Iconoclasm.
Main article: Byzantine Empire under the Macedonian dynasty. Main articles: Byzantine—Arab wars — and Muslim conquests. Further information: Byzantine—Bulgarian Wars. Further information: Byzantine Empire under the Doukas dynasty. Further information: Byzantine Empire under the Komnenos dynasty. See also: Byzantine—Seljuq wars. See also: Byzantine Empire under the Komnenos dynasty and Komnenian restoration. Further information: Alexios I Komnenos. Seeing his wife's courage, Justinian decided to stay. The riot was controlled, and Justinian continued to rule the Byzantine Empire. Empress Theodora refused to leave Constantinople in the wake of the Nika Riot. Justinian set out to rebuild the city after the the Nika Riots. Justinian rebuilt the Hagia Sophia, which, after the rebuilding, had the largest dome in the world.
The building is still standing today, although it is now a mosque, since the conquering Ottoman Turks were Muslim. The Hagia Sophia, rebuilt, with its grand dome, by Justinian, whom you can see with Theodora in the insert. Here is the melody of the song "Norwegian Wood," the lyrics describe the life of Empress Theodora. Amy Burvall, and Herb Mahelona, are two teachers from Hawaii who create short videos to help their students remember highlights of history topics. Disclaimer: By clicking on any links the user is leaving the Penfield School District website, the district is not responsible for any information associated with these links, including any pop-up ads. The type of Christianity practiced in Byzantium was called Eastern Orthodox.
Eastern Orthodox Christianity is still practiced today. There were also men called bishops in the major cities of the Empire. In the Byzantine Empire, emperors had power over the church, because they selected the patriarch. Even though Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic are both Christian, they had arguments and even battles against each other. The pope, the spiritual leader in Rome and the Catholics in the West, and the patriarch of Constantinople did not always agree. The Byzantine emperor was never totally safe. Unlike the barbarian kingdoms of the west, where the throne was passed from father to son, there was never a clear line of succession in the East. This was called the " Malady of the Purple," because any one with power could seize the throne in the Byzantine Empire.
There were always plots to overthrow the emperor and much political intrigue in Constantinople, even among family and relatives. In the Byzantines rolled out a new weapon called Greek Fire. This fire was thrown at the enemy and could not be extinguished , not even by water. The person who is given credit for the invention of Greek Fire is Kallinikos, a Syrian living in the Byzantine Empire. Greek Fire was used against the attacking Muslim fleets.
The formula for Greek Fire was a secret, and perhaps even the emperors did not know its ingredients. Greek fire was thrown in glass containers and propelled by a pump. Greek Fire has been lost to history, and no one is absolutely sure how to make it today. Greek Fire helped to save the Byzantine Empire and Christianity for several hundred years. Constantinople finally fell to the cannons of the Turks in The walls of Constantinople fell down, but the culture and ideas of the Byzantine Empire moved to the Christian West, creating a new interest in classic Greek and Roman ideas, called the Renaissance. Greek Fire, sometimes called Roman Fire, is being thrown at enemy ships in this Middle Ages manuscript. In the next chapter we will read about Islam and its founder Muhammad, a religion and empire that came in conflict with the Byzantines in the East and the barbarian kingdoms in the West.
Giotto's Site Penfield. Mister Giotto's Home Page. Class notes.Evans, Helen C. The earliest Suffrage Movement Outline church in Constantinople is the Basilica of St. The iconodule policy drove these farmers out How Did Justinian Influence The Byzantine Empire the army and thus How Did Justinian Influence The Byzantine Empire their farms. The Thesis Statement For Bowling was composed and distributed almost entirely How Did Justinian Influence The Byzantine Empire Latin, which was still the official language of the government of the Byzantine Empire inwhereas the prevalent language of merchants, farmers, seamen, and other citizens How Did Justinian Influence The Byzantine Empire Greek.