✯✯✯ Forensics: Ronald Cottons Unsolved Case

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Forensics: Ronald Cottons Unsolved Case

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As a government-endorsed document, the Statement allows individuals and institutions to adopt it and customize its use in their related activities. The Statement is intended to be reviewed and updated on a regular basis, and information about its usefulness and relevance to the users of biotechnology will be gathered to inform this process. Code versus statement of principle The field and applications of biotechnology are broad. Numerous statutory and non-statutory instruments currently in place were identified as providing guidance and setting standards for the ethical behaviour of scientists and others using biotechnology.

The map was tabled with the Statement and is the basis for stakeholder meetings to develop strategies to address any gaps. An enforceable Code of Ethical Practice was not the preferred approach of stakeholders. They expressed fears that the resulting duplication in coverage between state and national-governance instruments could potentially cause confusion and inconsistency in practice for users of biotechnology. The industry and, in particular, research institutions also highlighted the already substantial administrative burden of compliance with existing governance and regulatory schemes. Finally, it was suggested that the development of a statement of ethical principles for biotechnology would have an additional benefit in its usefulness as an educative tool for the wider community — the ethical principles applicable in science and technology activities are not easily available or accessible for individuals outside of the science community.

Similar examples of codes of conduct and practice were reviewed. Given that the Statement is directed towards business practice as well as scientific conduct, the VBEAC included principles drawn from the fields of business ethics and governance within the public sector. Asia-Pacific Perspectives on Biotechnology and Bioethics Two rounds of publicly advertised comment were sought — initially interested parties were asked what elements were important to include in such a statement, and an initial draft of the Statement and the mapping document were circulated for comment. A total of 78 submissions were received and reviewed by the VBEAC before the document was finalized and presented to the Government.

The student forum was organized by a group of students from senior years 10 to Students constructed a questionnaire looking at the applications of the draft ethical principles, which was then discussed in small breakout groups and again in a plenary forum. The students also considered how adherence to the Statement could be monitored, and they suggested strategies for its dissemination. The map of existing ethical guidance and controls accompanies the Statement but is formatted as a ready reference poster. The Statement puts forward the following eight ethical principles as fundamental to all activities using biotechnology: Respect for Persons: The recognition that persons have an inherent dignity and the welfare, rights, beliefs, perceptions, customs, and cultural heritage of individuals should be taken into account; Respect for Animals: The recognition that animals have a value both in their being and in relation to human culture; the welfare and humane treatment of animals should be taken into account; Respect for the Natural Environment: The recognition that the natural environment is our common heritage and sustains all life and human culture.

The natural environment is more than a means to satisfy human ends. The use of risk assessments, as a tool to ensure health and well-being, should be considered; Justice and Equity: The recognition that the benefits and burdens from biotechnology activities should be distributed equitably through society such that no particular group is inequitably advantaged or disadvantaged now or in future generations; Probity: The recognition that activities should be conducted honestly, truthfully, lawfully, impartially, competently and with considered regard for transparency of process; Accountability: The recognition that persons and institutions are inherently responsible both for their actions and the justification, the purpose and the consequence of their actions.

Interpreting the ethical principles In addition to the stated ethical principles, the VBEAC document includes a set of questions to assist individuals integrating the ethical principles into institutional and individual practice and governance Asia-Pacific Perspectives on Biotechnology and Bioethics systems. Further information on their roles and function are noted in the map. The VBEAC held further stakeholder meetings to identify gaps in the existing system of ethical guidance and controls and suggest ways in which these gaps may be addressed.

Further documentation providing individuals and institutions with a framework for recognizing ethical issues associated with the use of biotechnology has subsequently been distributed as well as the statement and map. The VBEAC also provided the Statement to other government jurisdictions with an aim to support the development of a national Australian Statement, and to mitigate potential inconsistency in practice across jurisdictions. PRSV stunts the infected plant and reduces the size of its fruits, sugar content, and yield. After the plants become infected by the virus, curative measures are not available. Some control measures are aimed at removing virus sources, providing certified virus-free plant materials, Asia-Pacific Perspectives on Biotechnology and Bioethics reducing the spread of the virus, breeding for virus resistance, and cultural practice.

Although conventional breeding has developed a number of virus-tolerant papaya varieties DOA, , these tolerant papayas may serve as reservoirs of the virus and may be attributable to subsequent epidemics of the ringspot disease. Currently, no natural virus-resistant genes against PRSV have been identified or are readily available for conventional breeding. Thus, genetically engineered virus resistance became a primary interest of researchers. A virus-resistant transgenic papaya was the first genetically modified fruit crop launched on the market Gonsalves, The 11 pathogen-derived resistance mechanism in transgenic papaya has been reported as an RNA-mediated mechanism Souza, On May 1st, , after the completion of research, testing, deregulation, and commercialization procedures, the transgenic papaya seeds became available to the farmers of Hawaii Gonsalves, Development of the virus-resistant transgenic papaya line has been reviewed in detail by Gonsalves The success of transgenic papaya has been well evidenced and served as a model for technology transfer for many countries, such as Jamaica, Brazil, Venezuela, Bangladesh, and Thailand.

Since then, farmers in Hawaii have been able to reclaim their land for papaya production. Gonsalves et al. Its host range is limited to Caricaceae, Cucurbitaceae, and Chenopodiaceae Purcifull et al. Conventional control methods of the virus, including sanitation, cultural practices, cross protection, and control of aphid vectors, have not been very successful Gonsalves, ; Kiritani and Su, PRSV can kill young susceptible papaya seedlings. It causes mottled patterns of the leaves, reduction of the laminar area, and water-soaked ringspot lesions on stems and fruits Wolfenbarger and Walker, In addition, yields of the infected plants are mostly unmarketable.

It is a major limiting factor to papaya production in many tropical and subtropical countries, including the United States Hawaii and Florida , tropical Africa, Australia, and South and Southeast Asia Ali and Lazan, ; Gonsalves, ; Kiritani and Su, Measures used to combat the infestation of PRSV included instigating quarantine controls, burning all infected plants, and using virus-tolerant varieties and pesticides. Nevertheless, all these measures just seemed to delay the real destruction. From a report by the Thailand Department of Agriculture, the production of papaya between the years and was , metric tons, or approximately When virus-resistant transgenic papayas were deployed in a disease management programme, the production of papaya in Hawaii was approximately Development of the virus-resistant transgenic Thai papaya Due to an urgent need for effective control measures against PRSV, several governmental agencies have been working to alleviate a common problem: the epidemics of ringspot disease in papaya.

Researchers at Mahidol University study molecular resistance mechanisms. Here we will cover the works related to the Department of Agriculture only. In , the Department of Agriculture sent Thai researchers to produce virus-resistant Thai papayas Asia-Pacific Perspectives on Biotechnology and Bioethics with a group led by Professor Dennis Gonsalves at Cornell University, where the first virus-resistant transgenic papaya was developed. In , the first Thai papayas were transformed by Thai researchers with technical assistance provided at Cornell University and brought back to Thailand. As a result of this technology transfer, two lines of transgenic Thai papayas, namely Khak Dam and Khak Nuan varieties, were rendered.

These transgenic papayas were transformed with constructs of non-translatable versions of a coat protein gene of a PRSV isolate from Thailand. Thus, similar to the transgenic papayas in Hawaii, these transgenic Thai papayas do not express a viral coat protein. The resistance mechanism is RNA- mediated, commonly known as a process called post-transcriptional gene silencing. These papayas were subjected to a test for their resistance against Thai strains of PRSV and for biosafety, both nutritional and environmental. The testing was divided into three levels, i. Several tests have been conducted to clarify biosafety concerns Sangruksawong, In co- cultivation experiments, transgenic Thai papayas were grown in close proximity with several locally- grown plant species and weeds, such as ground nuts, maize, lettuce, string bean and water morning glory.

In this experiment, all plants exhibited normal growth and development. Also, the number of microorganism species in the soil and compost of transgenic Thai papayas was not significantly different from the number of microorganism species in those of non-transgenic papayas. Those species included Rhizobium. In addition, the development and growth of bees and mice were not affected by consumption of transgenic Thai papaya, compared to those fed with non-transgenic papayas. Risk assessment and deregulation of genetically-modified crops Genetically engineered plants and products derived from genetically engineered plants have reached markets in several countries, including the United States, Canada, China, and Australia.

However, a common apprehension is that transgenic plants can be harmful to human consumption and the environment. For instance, comparisons of amino acid sequences and protein structures of known allergens are made with the food products derived from genetically engineered plants to determine their similarity. Reactions of antibodies to known food antigens are tested. In addition, animal testing and digestion assays can determine relative digestibility of the genetically engineered protein in mammalian gastrointestinal tracts.

The environmental concerns over virus-resistant plants are mainly ecological. These include transcapsidation, synergism, transgene flow or introgression, and recombination Tepfer, Nonetheless, we need to delineate actual risks from perceived risks. It is difficult to generalize whether transgenic plants are likely to pose ecological risks because each transgenic plant may be transformed with different genes and derived from different techniques. Each component provides idiosyncrasy to a transgenic plant. Many of the concerns are not only specific to the gene and the host plant, but also to the environment in which the plant is released. Thus, it is important to consider the concerns on a case-by-case basis.

US-APHIS, with its mission to monitor and safeguard resources and the environment, was concerned with the potential ecological risks of the transgenic papaya. In other countries such as Japan, the development and application of living modified organisms LMOs are regulated under specific laws. They are classified into two types: Type One is for the use of 13 LMOs where no preventative measures are required against their dispersal into the environment; Type Two is for the use of LMOs with preventive measures.

For Thailand, specific laws and regulations concerning the release of LMOs are still to be established. Currently, the Department of Agriculture has been following the Quarantine Regulations that have been used to quarantine and handle any importation of plants and living materials since Thus far, there has been no distribution of transgenic materials to the public. Besides, the Department of Agriculture has been conducting the test on biosafety with the highest security level. For instance, the confined field sites have been double fenced and guarded 24 hours a day. The non-transgenic papaya production facility is located approximately metres away from the confined field experiment location.

These measurements have been employed to minimize the risk of cross-contamination from the fields of transgenic papayas to other crops. At the time of printing this paper no commercialization or distribution of transgenic Thai papaya seeds is allowed Sangruksawong, Any importation of genetically modified organisms can only be done for research purposes. Therefore, any procedures involving transgenic papayas must be conducted with great care.

Currently, it is also used to provide consistent and unbiased guidelines to a country that, for whatever reason, might need to deal with the importation and release of LMOs Watanabe et al. The impacts could be both economical and sociological to both farmers and local communities. In Thailand, the farmers either rotate their crop species or move to another area where the virus infestation has not arrived, and some markets have started to import papayas to substitute production losses. These temporary solutions have not only had negative impacts on the local economy but also affected the minds and dignity of the local people, because they need to import a staple food that was once grown in their own backyards.

These are definitely not good solutions to the problem. The urgency of measures to alleviate the ringspot disease on papaya is apparent in Thailand. While several governmental agencies are taking efforts to deregulate the virus-resistant transgenic Thai papayas, stakeholders should work towards a practical and sound resolution based on scientific evidence in a timely manner. The transgenic papayas in Hawaii provide an excellent example to objectively determine how a transgenic Asia-Pacific Perspectives on Biotechnology and Bioethics product may affect the farmers and local community.

The project was started on a humanitarian basis, without investments from large multinational companies. The genetically engineered papaya cultivars have successfully demonstrated resistance to PRSV in laboratory, greenhouse, and long-term field trials. They have been in the open field for almost a decade now and there is no single report of any catastrophic event from the release of the transgenic papayas in Hawaii. However, for Thailand, it appears that the deregulation process will take more time than it did in Hawaii. This seems to be due to the controversies over generalization of transgenic technology. Concerns over biosafety issues should attest to justified assessment experiments for the actual risks, 14 and on a case-by-case basis.

At this point in time, Thailand has no biotech crop that is grown by local farmers. To bring Thailand towards being a biotech crop country, it is essential for the scientists and those who know and understand this technology to speak up and educate the uninformed. After joining the Cartagena Protocol, the interim regulatory agencies are working on agreements on the deregulation process of LMOs. A high demand for virus-resistant transgenic papayas from local farmers, and the established regulations of the government may propel the speed of deregulation.

Then, with the regulatory approval to the virus-resistant transgenic Thai papayas, Thailand will set its milestone towards becoming a biotech crop country. The transgenic Thai papaya will pave a path and become the practical pilot case for other fruits of biotechnology to follow. Disclaimer This article only reflects the opinions of the authors.

It does not provide any implication or any relation to the Thailand Department of Agriculture or any other mentioned agencies. Should further clarification be required, please contact the corresponding author. References Ali, Z. Papaya in Tropical and Subtropical Fruits. Edited by P. Shaw, J. Chan, and S. Florida, USA. AgScience Inc. Papaya Var. Thailand Department of Agriculture. Accessed on 12 April Evaluation of Allergenicity of Genetically Modified Foods.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. List of Completed Consultations on Bioengineered Foods. United States Food and Drug Administration. Fitch, M. Gonsalves, D. Annual Review of Phytopathology. July Kiritani, K. JARQ 33, pp. Purcifull, D. Papaya Ringspot Potyvirus. Edited by A. Brunt, K. Crabtree, M. Dallwitz, A. Gibbs, and L. Oxon, UK. CAB International. Sangruksawong, C. Souza, M. Tepfer, M. Wal, J. Watanabe, K. Putting Cartagena into Practice. Nature Biotechnology. Wolfenbarger, D. Two Major Pest Problems of Papayas. Proceedings of Florida State Horticultural Society. Selvanayagam Loyola College Chennai, India Introduction Consideration of the ethics of science, technology and the environment require a multidisciplinary perspective.

Biotechnology is the most controversial scientific discovery of recent times and hit the headlines of newspapers throughout the world because of potential positive and negative effects on the ethical and social aspects of present day civilized society. There are innumerable biotechnical, agricultural, industrial and medical applications in the biotechnological approach. In the field of medical and chemical biotechnology, biotechnologists have triumphed in producing some special chemicals such Asia-Pacific Perspectives on Biotechnology and Bioethics as amino acids, vitamins and enzymes which are essential for normal biological functions. Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, Biotechnologists have made remarkable contributions in the fields of agriculture and food in areas like pest control and animal foodstuffs.

The food processing industry has a constant demand for acceptable additives such as colorants, sweeteners and sauces, including soy sauce, novel catalysts and preservatives. They have developed plants resistant to pollution, insects, pests and even pesticides. Biotechnologists are trying to transfer the genes of the neem tree for insect and pest resistance. Using biotechnological methods, scientists have succeeded in enhancing the production of secondary 16 products such as wood, leaves, resins and also improving other products such as fatty acids, organic acids, vanilla and pigments. In the fields of energy and the environment, plants are the most efficient energy stores used by biotechnologists to produce fuels such as biodiesel directly from plants.

Biotechnologists have efficiently produced alcohol from biogas. Waste treatment has also improved as a larger scale fermentation industry requires new catalysts and improved reactors to treat toxic waste. Examples of the benefits of biotechnology Biotechnology is the application of biological systems in technology that can only be achieved through an integration of the biological, physical and engineering sciences. In this paper I wish to give some examples that relate to life in developing countries. The current approach of biotechnology in the environment is to apply biological products such as enzymes rather than live cultures.

Enzymatic action is very specific and also easy to control. This paper discusses biotechnological applications in different operations including: i. Waste water treatment; ii. Removal of specific pollutants by bioremediation; iii. Biotechnology for hazardous waste management; iv. Biotechnology for the pesticide industry; v. Biotechnology for food and allied industries, and; vi. Biotechniques for air pollution abatement and odour control, where the roles of chemical and environmental scientists are involved. This is a saving that can create additional pollution reductions.

This process also lowers wastewater toxicity. The yeasts, like Candida tropicalis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S. Agaricus bisporus and Lentinus oloides are important in lignocellulose decomposition. Corius versicolor is important in cleaning up pulp and paper mill waste. Phenolic waste treatment by specialized microbes Biological treatment of waste water containing organic pollutants has been universally accepted as a cost efficient method for the prevention of environmental pollution. Phenols and other aromatics are discharged from a variety of chemical industries, including the petrochemical refining and manufacturing industries, pharmaceuticals, coal refining, basic organic chemical manufacturing, textiles and pulp and paper milling.

Specialized microbes however have the capacity to transform these chemicals into non-toxic entities. The techniques consist of growing the cultures in a synthetic medium with the organic pollutant as the carbon source to the organisms along with other essential nutrients. Several investigations have employed this technique to detoxify phenolic wastes for a long time Kumaran and Shivaraman Aeruginosa, P. Removal of metals Heavy metal contamination causes direct toxicity to most living beings due to their presence beyond specified limits Jamode et al. Several past disasters were due to the contamination of heavy metals in the aquatic environment. Consequentially all effluents need to be assessed and require integrated pollution documentation before their final discharge.

Bioremediation Bioremediation is a pollution control technology that uses biological systems to catalyze the degradation or transformation of various toxic chemicals to less harmful forms. The general approaches to bioremediation are to enhance natural biodegradation by native organisms intrinsic bioremediation , to carry out environmental modification by applying nutrients or aeration biostimulation or through addition of microorganisms bioaugmentation. Unlike conventional technologies, bioremediation can be carried out on-site. Bioremediation is limited in the number of toxic materials it can handle, but where applicable, it is cost-effective Atlas and Unterman, Bioremediation refers to the use of biological systems to degrade toxic compounds in the environment.

Bioaccumulation or biosorption is the accumulation of the toxic compounds inside the cell without any degradation of the toxic molecule. This method can be effective in aquatic environments where the organisms can be removed after being loaded with the toxic substance. Asia-Pacific Perspectives on Biotechnology and Bioethics Fungi in bioremediation Fungi are good in the accumulation of heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, mercury, lead and zinc. Systems using Rhizopus arrhizus have been developed for treating uranium and thorium.

The ability of fungi to transform a wide variety of hazardous chemicals has created interest in using them in bioremediation Alexander, The white rot fungi are unique among eukaryotes for having evolved nonspecific methods for the degradation of lignin; curiously they do not use lignin as a carbon source for their growth Kirk et al. Lignin degradation is, therefore, essentially a secondary metabolic 18 process, not required for the main growth process. Lamar et al. Davis et al. Removal of dye In many developing countries large areas of land, and water tables, are polluted by the dye industry.

Consortia of fungi and bacteria usually uncharacterised are used in composting dye, the most useful waste disposal practice. Phenolic azo dyes have been shown to be oxidized by the enzyme laccase produced by Pyricularia oryzae Chivukula and Renganathan, Bacteria such as Pseudomonas and Bacillus have been shown to degrade the azo or reactive dyes from textile industry effluents.

The process is often referred to as biobleaching. The bacteria are often used in consortia for biobleaching Ashoka et al. Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been shown to affect the biobleaching of organic dyes Nigam et al. Pauli et al. Sami and Radhaune have demonstrated the role of lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase from P. The work carried out by Asoka et al. Biotechnology for hazardous waste Several bacteria have been found to be good degraders of toxic pesticides such as halocarbons. Some sulfate reducing bacteria transform tetrachloroethane to cis-1,2-dichloroethene by anarobic dehalogenation of halocarbons. Methanogenic bacterial consortium has been shown to degrade perchloroethene.

Mono and dichlorobenzenes are degraded aerobically by various Pseudomonas and Alcaligenes strains. Pentachlorobenzenes PCBs are degraded by strains of Acinetobacter and Alcaligenes the same way as Phanerochaete chrysosporium, the fungus. Several soil-inhabiting bacteria have been reported to degrade chlorophenols under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Pentachlorophenol is degraded by a monoxygenase enzyme which removes chlorine from the molecule making it nontoxic, and this enzyme is found in some soil bacteria.

Nitroaromatics are highly recalictrant because of the strong aromatic rings. Under anaerobic and microaerophilic conditions, the nitro groups of trinitrotoluene TNT can be reduced to amino groups but each subsequent step is slower. Petroleum products contain a mixture of several hydrocarbons which are difficult to degrade by any one bacterium. Short-chain alkanes are toxic to many microorganisms and are difficult to degrade. Intermediate chain length CC24 are degraded most rapidly.

Very long chain alkanes become increasingly resistant to biodegradation. Monoxygenases and dioxygenases are the enzymes involved in the degradation of alkanes. The aromatic hydrocarbons present in petroleum are also difficult Asia-Pacific Perspectives on Biotechnology and Bioethics to degrade. Some aromatic compounds such as benzene and toluene can be degraded by bacteria, especially species of Pseudomonas. Biodegradation of oil spills is a major problem because it usually occurs on marine water surfaces and seeding with bacteria becomes difficult. Besides, there is no single bacterium that can degrade all the components of the oils which are petroleum products.

A genetically engineered strain of Pseudomonas putida has been reported by Anand Chakrabarty, an Indian-born scientist working in the USA, which can degrade more than three to four components of petroleum. Other bacteria used in the treatment of oil spills are strains of Alcaligenes eutropus, Rhodococcus, Bacillus and several unidentified bacteria. Nutrients like nitrogen and phosphate enhance the potential of microorganisms for biodegradation. Biotechnology for the pesticide industry With industrialization and the extensive use of pesticides in agriculture, the pollution of the environment with human-made synthetic organic compounds has become a major problem. Many of these novel compounds introduced into nature are called xenobiotics, and a large number of them are not easily degraded by the indigenous microflora and fauna.

The list of xenobiotics is very long and some of them are directly applied to nature in the form of pesticides or fertilizers, some others are released as industrial waste products effluents. Other than the above compounds, the xenobiotics would also include a wide variety of dumped materials such as plastics, detergents and oil spills, either inadvertently or deliberately disposed of. The chemical pollutants such as toxic pesticides are of two types, biodegradable and nonbiodegradable recalcitrant. A biodegradable pesticide may be converted by microbial action into a nontoxic compound within a few months whereas a recalcitrant chemical may remain in nature for several years in the toxic form.

The duration of persistence of some of the common pesticides is given in Table Two. Table 2: Persistence of some pesticides in the environment Common Name Chemical name Persistence Years Aldrin Hexahydro dimetanonaphthalene 15 Chlordane Octacholoro hexahydro methano-indene 15 DDT Dichloro diphenyl trichlro ethane 15 Diuron Dichlorophenyl dimethyl urea 15 Endrin Hexachloro dimethanonaphthalene 14 Monuron Parachlorphenyl dimethyl urea 3 Parathion Diethyl paranitrophenyl phosphorodithioate 16 PCP Pentachlorophenol 5 Simazine Cholro ethyl amino triazene 2 Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been shown to degrade a number of toxic xenobiotics such as aromatic hydrocarbons Benzo alpha pyrene, Phenanthrene, Pyrene , chlorinated organics Alkyl halide insecticides, Chloroanilines, DDT, Pentachlorophenols, Trichlorophenol, Polychlorinated biphenyls, Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid , nitrogen aromatics 2,4-Dinitrotoluene, 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene-TNT and several miscellaneous compounds such as sulfonated azodyes.

Several enzymes which are released such as laccases, polyphenol oxidases, lignin peroxidases etc. In addition, a variety of intracellular enzymes such as reductases, methyl transferases and cytochrome Asia-Pacific Perspectives on Biotechnology and Bioethics oxygenases are known to play a role in xenobiotic degradation Barr and Aust, Biodegradability or recalcitrance depends on the nature of the chemical molecule. Often a simple change in the substituents of a chemical molecule may make the difference between recalcitrance and biodegradability. The herbicide 2,4-D 2,4 dichlorophenoxy acetic acid is biodegraded within days but 2,4,5-T differs only by the addition of a chlorine molecule in the meta-position.

The additional substitution interferes with the hydroxylation and cleavage of the aromatic ring. Similarly methoxychlor is less persistent than DDT which has great stability. These process are characterized by the direct application of live organisms and the in sitar production of enzymes and other products Table 3. The adequate microbial treatments acrobic, mesophilic anaerobic and thermophilic anaerobic for the purification of vinasses were examined. Ninety percent biodegradable COD removals were achieved in every treatment. Biotechnology for air pollution abatement and odour control With advances in biotechnology, it is feasible to modify plants for a wider range of phytomonitoring and phytoremediation applications.

It is proved that it is possible to produce pollution resistant plant species, through biotechnology Linderman, ; Baker, Ethical limits of biotechnology As biotechnology has become widely used, questions and concerns have also been raised. One of the main areas of concern is the safety of genetically engineered food American Dietetic Association, In assessing the benefits and risks involved in the use of modern biotechnology, there are a series of issues to be addressed so that informed decisions can be made. The health effects of foods grown from genetically engineered crop depend on the composition of the food itself. Any new product may have either beneficial or occasional harmful effects on human health.

What we know from our understanding of science and more than a decade of experience with biotech-derived plants is that they appear to be safe FDA, There is no evidence that genetic transfers between unrelated organisms pose human health concerns that are different from those encountered with any new plant or animal variety. The risk associated with biotechnology are the same as those associated with plants and microbes developed by conventional methods.

Consumers find biotechnology acceptable when they believe it offers benefits and it is safe. Conclusion The applications of biotechnology are so broad, and the advantages compelling that virtually every industry is using this technology. Developments are underway in areas as diverse as pharmaceuticals, textiles, chemicals, cleaning the environment, food processing and forensics to name but a few.

Biotechnology holds a significant promise to the future but a certain amount of risk is associated with any area. Biotechnology must continue to be carefully regulated so that the maximum benefits are received with the least risk. References Alexander, M. Biodegradation and Bioremediation. Academy Press, San Diego, Calif. Kumaran, P. Procedural history: Miller was given a two day trial, where he was convicted by the jury.

Miller was sentenced to a maximum of 32 months, and a minimum of 12 months in prison. In , well after the BTK case became an unsolved cold case with no leads whatsoever, Rader was suddenly a prime suspect. What made him became something of a suspect was because he began taunting the police, by initiating a series of communications with the media. Though the biggest deal for the prosecution was tracing contact information Rader inadvertently provided police on a computer floppy disk, once he was tracked they. They both were huge liars, who accused innocent people of being something they weren't. Abigail Williams accused women of being witches during her era and Joseph McCarthy accused society in his days of being communist.

Manipulating and had some sort of power to convince everyone around them to believe the same thing. Miles was charged with murder and attempted murder. During his trial the prosecution relied primarily on Thurman, who identified Miles in the courtroom. Miles did have two alibis but the prosecution argued that they were concocted. Miles was convicted of murder and attempted murder and was sentenced to 60 years. After his appeals were denied time after time Miles was finally exonerated after spending 15 years in prison for a crime that he did not commit. Abigail lies about her ability to see spirits and so do many of the other girls by following her lies. On the other hand Proctor is deceitful both for cheating on his wife and for hiding it.

Others like the Governor and ministers lie to themselves and also everybody else by saying they serve the cause of God's Justice. The world is full of love and desire but also has lots of hate and cruelty which all adds up to a world full of drama. The Crucible is an exciting thriller and shows many how lies end up catching up to you. Although some might disagree, I believe Charles Manson characterizes as a secondary psychopath, for the reason being these types of psychopaths sometimes commit violent crimes due to emotional problems, or rejection. Charles also may characterize as a criminal psychopath, for the reason being he was very manipulative, and he manipulated young individuals into doing his crime for him.

Susan Atkins claims that he manipulate, those who are now his fellow members by telling them things that made them feel loved, and by putting them on drugs and making them believe everything he said was true. Even though the car had a speculator, the three men were cleared by a jury which was all Caucasian. After one of the defense attorneys called Viola by a contemptuous name, all three men were held accountable of schemes during a federal trial and were condemned for just ten years in jail. They ultimately wounded up in prison for only six years due to a cruel and ruthless.

Methods 27 The project focused on understanding empirical social processes Arguments Against Organ Donation interpretation and interactions among actors involved in the Bt cotton controversy. Not good. It is a fantasy of the political future, and like Bully Beatdown Vs Stop Bullying Essay such Forensics: Ronald Cottons Unsolved Case, serves its author The Importance Of Hang Nails a magnifying device Forensics: Ronald Cottons Unsolved Case an Forensics: Ronald Cottons Unsolved Case of the present. Within the Monarch slave's mind, countless mirror images are made. He followed their movements until the scene Forensics: Ronald Cottons Unsolved Case and faded. This surely is outdoing everything Forensics: Ronald Cottons Unsolved Case went before.

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