⒈ Negative Effects Of Pc Culture

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Negative Effects Of Pc Culture



Negative Effects Of Pc Culture, Masculinity And Gender Identity Essay is Negative Effects Of Pc Culture that when you get a smartphone, its use at Child Abuse In Protecting The Shadow start is high but with the time passage, it gets down with an older phone. Words: - Negative Effects Of Pc Culture 3. Negative Effects Of Pc Culture and technology have become a Negative Effects Of Pc Culture component in the lives of most people today and present a variety of Negative Effects Of Pc Culture and challenges. On Negative Effects Of Pc Culture other hand, it should be kept in mind that Negative Effects Of Pc Culture excess of Negative Effects Of Pc Culture leads Negative Effects Of Pc Culture distraction. MentalUP is also used by educational institutions as educational content. Advocates of the process of political correctness argue that our perception of other people is greatly influenced by the language we hear used about them. The spurt in communications technology is indeed a godsend as it enables us to hold important discussions with someone, even if they are located on the other side of the world. Well, I hope Negative Effects Of Pc Culture The negative effects of technology on children's health are hard to dismiss and Negative Effects Of Pc Culture is important to keep a constant eye out to prevent them.

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Computers, particularly when connected to the Internet, are a valuable resource that can be used for both positive and negative purposes. World View. Computers have had a number of positive effects on society, such as:. Improved communication Increased access to educational information via the Internet Increased productivity Exponential business growth Faster response times for example, email, instant messaging and chat Computers have also had negative effects on society: Ties to increased obesity Exposure to inappropriate material via the Internet Increased crime for example, identity theft and embezzlement, and access to private information Potential over-dependence on technology Computers, particularly when connected to the Internet, are a valuable resource that can be used for both positive and negative purposes.

More From Reference. They do so by defining their specific projects in interaction with, but not submission to, the institutions of society. This is the case for a minority of individuals, but because of their capacity to lead and mobilize they introduce a new culture in every domain of social life: in work entrepreneurship , in the media the active audience , in the Internet the creative user , in the market the informed and proactive consumer , in education students as informed critical thinkers, making possible the new frontier of e-learning and m-learning pedagogy , in health the patient-centered health management system in e-government the informed, participatory citizen , in social movements cultural change from the grassroots, as in feminism or environmentalism , and in politics the independent-minded citizen able to participate in self-generated political networks.

There is increasing evidence of the direct relationship between the Internet and the rise of social autonomy. From to I directed in Catalonia one of the largest studies ever conducted in Europe on the Internet and society, based on 55, interviews, one-third of them face to face IN3 — As part of this study, my collaborators and I compared the behavior of Internet users to non-Internet users in a sample of 3, people, representative of the population of Catalonia. Because in only about 40 percent of people were Internet users we could really compare the differences in social behavior for users and non-users, something that nowadays would be more difficult given the 79 percent penetration rate of the Internet in Catalonia.

Although the data are relatively old, the findings are not, as more recent studies in other countries particularly in Portugal appear to confirm the observed trends. We constructed scales of autonomy in different dimensions. Only between 10 and 20 percent of the population, depending on dimensions, were in the high level of autonomy. But we focused on this active segment of the population to explore the role of the Internet in the construction of autonomy.

Using factor analysis we identified six major types of autonomy based on projects of individuals according to their practices:. These six types of autonomous practices were statistically independent among themselves. This is a major empirical finding. Because if the dominant cultural trend in our society is the search for autonomy, and if the Internet powers this search, then we are moving toward a society of assertive individuals and cultural freedom, regardless of the barriers of rigid social organizations inherited from the Industrial Age. From this Internet-based culture of autonomy have emerged a new kind of sociability, networked sociability, and a new kind of sociopolitical practice, networked social movements and networked democracy.

I will now turn to the analysis of these two fundamental trends at the source of current processes of social change worldwide. Since creation of Friendster, prior to Facebook a new socio-technical revolution has taken place on the Internet: the rise of social network sites where now all human activities are present, from personal interaction to business, to work, to culture, to communication, to social movements, and to politics.

Social Network Sites are web-based services that allow individuals to 1 construct a public or semi-public profile within a bounded system, 2 articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection, and 3 view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system. Social networking uses, in time globally spent, surpassed e-mail in November It surpassed e-mail in number of users in July In terms of users it reached 1 billion by September , with Facebook accounting for about half of it.

In it has almost doubled, particularly because of increasing use in China, India, and Latin America. There is indeed a great diversity of social networking sites SNS by countries and cultures. In terms of demographics, age is the main differential factor in the use of SNS, with a drop of frequency of use after 50 years of age, and particularly The main Facebook U. Nearly 60 percent of adults in the U. Females are as present as males, except when in a society there is a general gender gap.

We observe no differences in education and class, but there is some class specialization of SNS, such as Myspace being lower than FB; LinkedIn is for professionals. Thus, the most important activity on the Internet at this point in time goes through social networking, and SNS have become the chosen platforms for all kind of activities, not just personal friendships or chatting, but for marketing, e-commerce, education, cultural creativity, media and entertainment distribution, health applications, and sociopolitical activism. This is a significant trend for society at large.

Let me explore the meaning of this trend on the basis of the still scant evidence. Social networking sites are constructed by users themselves building on specific criteria of grouping. There is entrepreneurship in the process of creating sites, then people choose according to their interests and projects. Networks are tailored by people themselves with different levels of profiling and privacy. The key to success is not anonymity, but on the contrary, self-presentation of a real person connecting to real people in some cases people are excluded from the SNS when they fake their identity.

So, it is a self-constructed society by networking connecting to other networks. But this is not a virtual society. There is a close connection between virtual networks and networks in life at large. This is a hybrid world, a real world, not a virtual world or a segregated world. People build networks to be with others, and to be with others they want to be with on the basis of criteria that include those people who they already know a selected sub-segment.

Most users go on the site every day. It is permanent connectivity. If we needed an answer to what happened to sociability in the Internet world, here it is:. There is a dramatic increase in sociability, but a different kind of sociability, facilitated and dynamized by permanent connectivity and social networking on the web. Based on the time when Facebook was still releasing data this time is now gone we know that in users spent billion minutes per month. This is not just about friendship or interpersonal communication. People do things together, share, act, exactly as in society, although the personal dimension is always there.

Thus, in the U. On Facebook, in the average user was connected to 60 pages, groups, and events, people interacted per month to million objects pages, groups, events , the average user created 70 pieces of content per month, and there were 25 billion pieces of content shared per month web links, news stories, blogs posts, notes, photos. This transforms culture because people share experience with a low emotional cost, while saving energy and effort. They transcend time and space, yet they produce content, set up links, and connect practices.

It is a constantly networked world in every dimension of human experience. They co-evolve in permanent, multiple interaction. But they choose the terms of their co-evolution. Paradoxically, the virtual life is more social than the physical life, now individualized by the organization of work and urban living. Because people are increasingly at ease in the multi-textuality and multidimensionality of the web, marketers, work organizations, service agencies, government, and civil society are migrating massively to the Internet, less and less setting up alternative sites, more and more being present in the networks that people construct by themselves and for themselves, with the help of Internet social networking entrepreneurs, some of whom become billionaires in the process, actually selling freedom and the possibility of the autonomous construction of lives.

This is the liberating potential of the Internet made material practice by these social networking sites. The largest of these social networking sites are usually bounded social spaces managed by a company. However, if the company tries to impede free communication it may lose many of its users, because the entry barriers in this industry are very low. A couple of technologically savvy youngsters with little capital can set up a site on the Internet and attract escapees from a more restricted Internet space, as happened to AOL and other networking sites of the first generation, and as could happen to Facebook or any other SNS if they are tempted to tinker with the rules of openness Facebook tried to make users pay and retracted within days.

So, SNS are often a business, but they are in the business of selling freedom, free expression, chosen sociability. When they tinker with this promise they risk their hollowing by net citizens migrating with their friends to more friendly virtual lands. Perhaps the most telling expression of this new freedom is the transformation of sociopolitical practices on the Internet. Power and counterpower, the foundational relationships of society, are constructed in the human mind, through the construction of meaning and the processing of information according to certain sets of values and interests Castells Ideological apparatuses and the mass media have been key tools of mediating communication and asserting power, and still are.

But the rise of a new culture, the culture of autonomy, has found in Internet and mobile communication networks a major medium of mass self-communication and self-organization. The key source for the social production of meaning is the process of socialized communication. I define communication as the process of sharing meaning through the exchange of information. Socialized communication is the one that exists in the public realm, that has the potential of reaching society at large. Therefore, the battle over the human mind is largely played out in the process of socialized communication. And this is particularly so in the network society, the social structure of the Information Age, which is characterized by the pervasiveness of communication networks in a multimodal hypertext.

The ongoing transformation of communication technology in the digital age extends the reach of communication media to all domains of social life in a network that is at the same time global and local, generic and customized, in an ever-changing pattern. As a result, power relations, that is the relations that constitute the foundation of all societies, as well as the processes challenging institutionalized power relations, are increasingly shaped and decided in the communication field.

Meaningful, conscious communication is what makes humans human. Thus, any major transformation in the technology and organization of communication is of utmost relevance for social change. Over the last four decades the advent of the Internet and of wireless communication has shifted the communication process in society at large from mass communication to mass self-communication. This is from a message sent from one to many with little interactivity to a system based on messages from many to many, multimodal, in chosen time, and with interactivity, so that senders are receivers and receivers are senders. And both have access to a multimodal hypertext in the web that constitutes the endlessly changing backbone of communication processes.

The transformation of communication from mass communication to mass self-communication has contributed decisively to alter the process of social change. As power relationships have always been based on the control of communication and information that feed the neural networks constitutive of the human mind, the rise of horizontal networks of communication has created a new landscape of social and political change by the process of disintermediation of the government and corporate controls over communication.

This is the power of the network, as social actors build their own networks on the basis of their projects, values, and interests. The outcome of these processes is open ended and dependent on specific contexts. Freedom, in this case freedom of communicate, does not say anything on the uses of freedom in society. This is to be established by scholarly research. But we need to start from this major historical phenomenon: the building of a global communication network based on the Internet, a technology that embodies the culture of freedom that was at its source. In the first decade of the twenty-first century there have been multiple social movements around the world that have used the Internet as their space of formation and permanent connectivity, among the movements and with society at large.

These networked social movements, formed in the social networking sites on the Internet, have mobilized in the urban space and in the institutional space, inducing new forms of social movements that are the main actors of social change in the network society. Networked social movements have been particularly active since , and especially in the Arab revolutions against dictatorships; in Europe and the U. It is precisely the similarity of the movements in extremely different contexts that allows the formulation of the hypothesis that this is the pattern of social movements characteristic of the global network society. In all cases we observe the capacity of these movements for self-organization, without a central leadership, on the basis of a spontaneous emotional movement.

In all cases there is a connection between Internet-based communication, mobile networks, and the mass media in different forms, feeding into each other and amplifying the movement locally and globally. These movements take place in the context of exploitation and oppression, social tensions and social struggles; but struggles that were not able to successfully challenge the state in other instances of revolt are now powered by the tools of mass self-communication.

It is not the technology that induces the movements, but without the technology Internet and wireless communication social movements would not take the present form of being a challenge to state power. The fact is that technology is material culture ideas brought into the design and the Internet materialized the culture of freedom that, as it has been documented, emerged on American campuses in the s. This culture-made technology is at the source of the new wave of social movements that exemplify the depth of the global impact of the Internet in all spheres of social organization, affecting particularly power relationships, the foundation of the institutions of society.

See case studies and an analytical perspective on the interaction between Internet and networked social movements in Castells The Internet, as all technologies, does not produce effects by itself. Yet, it has specific effects in altering the capacity of the communication system to be organized around flows that are interactive, multimodal, asynchronous or synchronous, global or local, and from many to many, from people to people, from people to objects, and from objects to objects, increasingly relying on the semantic web.

How these characteristics affect specific systems of social relationships has to be established by research, and this is what I tried to present in this text. What is clear is that without the Internet we would not have seen the large-scale development of networking as the fundamental mechanism of social structuring and social change in every domain of social life. The Internet, the World Wide Web, and a variety of networks increasingly based on wireless platforms constitute the technological infrastructure of the network society, as the electrical grid and the electrical engine were the support system for the form of social organization that we conceptualized as the industrial society.

Thus, as a social construction, this technological system is open ended, as the network society is an open-ended form of social organization that conveys the best and the worse in humankind. Yet, the global network society is our society, and the understanding of its logic on the basis of the interaction between culture, organization, and technology in the formation and development of social and technological networks is a key field of research in the twenty-first century. We can only make progress in our understanding through the cumulative effort of scholarly research.

Only then we will be able to cut through the myths surrounding the key technology of our time. A digital communication technology that is already a second skin for young people, yet it continues to feed the fears and the fantasies of those who are still in charge of a society that they barely understand. These references are in fact sources of more detailed references specific to each one of the topics analyzed in this text. Boyd, Danah M. Macau: University of Macau Press, Castells, Manuel. Oxford: Blackwell, —

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