⚡ Fredrick Douglass Second Great Awakening
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The Second Great Awakening
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In the Heat of the Night by John Ball. The Expendable Spy by Jack D. The Fiend by Margaret Millar. This Rough Magic by Mary Stewart. In the Last Analysis by Amanda Cross. The Light of Day by Eric Ambler. In the same year as the Missouri Compromise , the Methodist Episcopal Church ended its ban on preachers and leadership owning slaves. Around the same time, it became closely tied to the American Colonization Society and its own Liberian Mission, which proposed sending freedmen to evangelize Africa.
According to historian Donald Mathews, "[T]here was no religious denomination more closely connected with colonization than the Methodist Episcopal Church". In the s, abolitionists within the Methodist Episcopal Church sought to recover the church's antislavery witness. Notable abolitionist activity took place within the New England Annual Conference where Orange Scott and others used camp meetings and conference structures to attack slavery and the suppression of antislavery sentiments in church publications. Despite their efforts, Nathan Bangs kept abolitionist messages out of church periodicals, and the bishops also sought to suppress abolitionists for the sake of church unity.
Abolitionist clergy were censured , brought up on disciplinary charges, and appointed to difficult assignments as punishment. Southern Methodists responded by defending the morality of slavery and asserting that, as a political matter, slavery was an issue that was outside of the church's authority to adjudicate. Condemning the MEC as "not only a slave-holding, but a slavery defending, Church," these men organized a new Methodist church on explicitly abolitionist grounds in called the Wesleyan Methodist Church not to be confused with the British church of the same name. Despite the Wesleyan Methodist secession, the anti-slavery movement among northern Methodists continued to grow, with conferences passing anti-slavery resolutions preceding the General Conference.
Over the objections of southerners, General Conference created a committee on slavery that recommended the conference act to "separate slavery from the church". Most damaging to church unity, the General Conference ordered Bishop James Osgood Andrew , a slave owner, to "desist from the exercise of this office so long as this impediment remains" on the basis that his owning slaves would prevent him from effectively ministering as a bishop in the North. A committee of nine was appointed to study the possibility of an amicable separation of the church. It proposed a Plan of Separation that would provide for determining a geographic boundary between the two churches and a peaceful division of property, such as the Book Concern and the pension resources of the Chartered Fund.
Despite concerns that this proposal would cause "war and strife in the border conferences", it was approved by General Conference. As it required an amendment to the Restrictive Regulations, however, the plan had to be ratified by three-fourths of the annual conferences and was rejected by the northern conferences. This action started a contest between northern and southern conferences to recruit as many border stations and circuits as they could, especially in the Delmarva Peninsula, western Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio and Missouri. Meanwhile, the MEC General Conference declared that the Plan of Separation had failed to receive the required conference votes and could not be used to legally divide the church.
Swormstedt that the creation of the MECS was legal. The Genesee Conference in New York was most effected. There, reform-minded Methodists led by B. Roberts protested slavery as well as other signs of cultural accommodation, such as pew rents which alienated the poor and the decline in revivalism and holiness teaching. The conference leadership reacted to this by harassing and expelling Roberts and his colleagues who then went on to organize the Free Methodist Church in Concerned about defections to the Free Methodists, the General Conference declared owning slaves to be "contrary to the laws of God and nature" and inconsistent with the church's rules.
This sparked a wave of petitions from border conferences demanding a return to a neutral position on slavery. Kentucky and Missouri would soon become religious battlegrounds as Methodists divided into pro-Union and pro-Confederate camps. The Methodist split over slavery paralleled a national split. The controversy over slavery led the Southern states to secede from the Union and form the Confederate States of America , actions that led to the American Civil War. No denomination was more active in supporting the Union than the Methodist Episcopal Church. Historian Richard Carwardine argues that for many Methodists, Abraham Lincoln 's election as US president in heralded the arrival of the kingdom of God in America. They were moved into action by a vision of freedom for slaves, freedom from the terror unleashed on godly abolitionists, release from the Slave Power 's evil grip on the state, and a new direction for the Union.
Methodists contributed many chaplains to the Union Army and were heavily involved in the Christian Commission , a Protestant organization that provided religious services to soldiers and contributed to revivals within the army between and It portrayed the War as a great moral crusade against a decadent Southern civilization corrupted by slavery. It recommended activities that family members could perform in order to aid the Union cause.
While the MEC was overwhelmingly supportive of the war effort, a minority of northern Methodists disagreed with the church's political stance. In Ohio, Methodists who sympathized with the anti-war Copperheads coalesced into a new denomination, the Christian Union. After the Confederacy's defeat, Methodists formed a major element of the popular support for the Radical Republicans with their hard line toward the white South.
Resolved, That no terms should be made with traitors, no compromise with rebels. That we hold the National authority bound by the most solemn obligation to God and man to bring all the civil and military leaders of the rebellion to trial by due course of law, and when they are clearly convicted, to execute them. In a highly controversial move, the Northern MEC used the army to seize control of Methodist churches in large Southern cities over the vehement protests of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South.
Historian Ralph Morrow reports:. A War Department order of November, , applicable to the Southwestern states of the Confederacy, authorized the Northern Methodists to occupy "all houses of worship belonging to the Methodist Episcopal Church South in which a loyal minister, appointed by a loyal bishop of said church, does not officiate. During Reconstruction , Northern denominations all sent missionaries, teachers and activists to the South to help the Freedmen. Only the Methodists made many converts, however. The focus on social problems paved the way for the Social Gospel movement a few years later. Matthew Simpson , a famous bishop, played a leading role in mobilizing the Northern Methodists for the cause.
His biographer calls him the "High Priest of the Radical Republicans. A major driver in the creation of such institutions was the Woman's Home Missionary Society, founded in In , during the 19th century holiness movement, Methodist Episcopal minister Phineas F. The Church of the Nazarene separated over a perceived need to minister further to the urban poor, the origins of its Nazarene name. Several other churches, roughly 15 holiness denominations that had also split from the Methodist Episcopal Church, joined the Church of the Nazarene in and , and it became international soon thereafter. The new Church of the Nazarene retained the Methodist Episcopal tradition of education and now operates 56 educational institutions around the world, including eight liberal arts colleges in the United States, each tied to an "educational region".
Its standards included a ban against marriages with unconverted persons; a prohibition on the buying, selling and use of alcohol teetotalism ; abstinence from tobacco; and an injunction not to wear "gold and costly apparel". The following list notes divisions and mergers that occurred in Methodist Episcopal Church history. This group was concentrated in Massachusetts and Vermont. Bishop Francis Asbury had ordained him earlier in The issue was the role of laity in governance of the church. In , it merged.
In , it merged into The Methodist Church , which endures until and a subsequent merger with the Evangelical United Brethren Church forming the current U. Roberts and others. Later changed its name to Christian Methodist Episcopal Church. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Religious organization in the United States. John Wesley. History in the United States. Articles of Religion Assurance of faith Conditional preservation of the saints. Four sources of theological authority. John Wesley Charles Wesley. Bishops Theologians. Groups Churches. Connexionalism Methodist Circuit.
Related groups. Holiness movement Conservative holiness movement Holiness Pentecostalism Evangelicalism. Other topics. Further information: History of Methodism in the United States. Further information: First Great Awakening. Further information: Second Great Awakening. Main article: Holiness movement. Methodism portal. University of Virginia. Archived from the original on August 4, Retrieved August 3, United Methodist Church of Whitefish Bay. Archived from the original on March 25, Retrieved August 1, For years —, see Bangs , pp. For years —, see "Methodist Episcopal Church" , www. For the original service book, see Wesley United Methodist Publishing House. Retrieved July 19, For Watson's original book, see Wesleyan Methodist Swormstedt 57 U.Fredrick Douglass Second Great Awakening by Ben Guterson. The Strangler Vine Zodiac killer movie M. Ronin by Nick Christian. Beat Not the Bones by Charlotte Jay.