⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐ Analyse The Theoretical Perspectives Taken To Learning And Development Through Play

Tuesday, December 14, 2021 4:21:56 PM

Analyse The Theoretical Perspectives Taken To Learning And Development Through Play

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Learning Theories

More generally, it will appeal to students interested in broader debates that affect everyday life: Do children have rights? Do parents have rights? It will also appeal to students who enjoy blending theoretical and conceptual arguments with the practical messiness of everyday life. Finally, it will appeal to students who are interested in bringing international sources of law to bear on such problems. The aim of this option is to examine a number of the most significant issues affecting the legal regulation of children, children and their families, and families more generally. Our intention is that, after completing the option, you are uniquely empowered and challenged to both critique and reassess the value of theoretical arguments made in this context, as well as reconsider how best to address real world problems.

This course will introduce students to key procedural rules and principles in civil litigation and alternative dispute resolution and teach them how to critically evaluate the rules and the leading cases seeking to apply them. The course is divided into 5 topics, although the time dedicated to each varies substantially:. The course will consist of 20 hours of seminars and 5 tutorials spread across Michaelmas and the first half of Hilary Term. Students will be required to answer four questions out of a possible ten. There will be two optional problem questions. All other questions will be essays. A case list and relevant legislative provisions including parts of the CPR will be supplied in the examination room.

The purpose of the course is to study the Civilian Law of Contracts, particularly the Law of Sale, as it developed from ca. It was the subject of mediaeval and later commentaries; study of these will show how the texts were interpreted and eventually adapted to contemporary use. Key topics are the emergence of a general contract law with some of its aspects and the law of Sale. Learning outcomes: An understanding of how modern civilian doctrines emerged from the adaptation of Roman Law texts and how the emergence from a university environment gave these doctrines their distinct scholastic flavour. Part of the fascination of commercial law springs from its responsiveness to the changing needs of the business community.

Through the ingenuity of those in business and their legal advisers new instruments and procedures are constantly being devised which have to be tested for their legal effect against established principles of the law of property and obligations. The core of the course involves a rigorous examination of personal property law in the context of commercial transactions, together with contractual issues of central importance to commercial transactions. The first part of the course looks at issues related to the sale of goods, such as implied terms, transfer of property and title disputes with third parties.

Basic principles of commercial transactions, such as assignment, agency and possession are then examined. The last part of the course looks at real security in personal property, including priorities between secured interests and the characterisation of, and justification for, real security. There are also lectures covering negotiable instruments and documents of title to goods. A feature of the whole course is that the student learns how a desired legal result can be achieved, or a legal hazard avoided, by selection of an appropriate contract structure. Though students will be expected to analyse statutory materials as well as case law, a distinguishing feature of the course is its concentration on fundamental concepts and their application in a commercial setting.

The course thus offers an intellectual challenge and provides a good foundation for those contemplating practice in the field of commercial law. The course will be taught by a combination of lectures, seminars, and tutorials, and will also feature practical workshops involving negotiation and mediation role play exercises. This course aims to provide an in-depth understanding of remedies in a commercial context, interpreting that phrase in a wide sense.

So it will cover remedies for civil wrongs i. The course will build on knowledge which all law undergraduates ought to have and will enable students to look in greater depth at matters dealt with at undergraduate level. The approach will be avowedly traditional in that the focus will be on case analysis and doctrine. As with the Restitution of Unjust Enrichment course, with which this will dovetail, the anticipation is that developments at the cutting edge of the law will be constantly debated. An important and novel aspect of the course will be to consider claims at common law and equity alongside one another, so as to see the similarities and differences.

Learning outcomes: a comprehensive understanding of remedies for civil wrongs in a commercial context. The company is one of the most important institutions in our society. There are over two million registered companies which, of course, vary radically in size and commercial significance ranging from the "one person" company to the large public companies. By virtually any measurement the company is the dominant vehicle through which business is conducted. There are a number of reasons for this but principally it is because it is a very flexible commercial institution and it is made conveniently and cheaply available. The purpose of the course is to introduce students to the basic conceptual apparatus of company law and to analyse some of the policy issues raised in regulating this pervasive commercial form.

It is important to note that the course is of relevance not only to those who wish to pursue a career as commercial or company lawyers, but also to those who have no such aspirations, as a knowledge of the company and how it works is relevant to many aspects of legal practice. The course involves an analysis of not only cases but also statute law and, although the Companies Act is among the largest statutes on the statute book, the course is not overly dominated by the study of statutory materials.

This course critically examines the legal structure of constitutions in comparative perspective. It focuses on the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, and Germany, and students will be expected to acquire general knowledge of these constitutional systems and in-depth understanding of certain aspects that will be emphasised in the readings. The aim of the course is two-fold. The first is to understand how the above four constitutional systems structure, allocate, and limit legal and political powers, and how constitutional mechanisms for deliberation and decision-making operate in practice.

The second is to gain general understanding of the nature of constitutions and constitutional law, in particular with respect to the following topics. We will also consider the question of the methodology of studying comparative constitutional law. While the course considers the structure and justification of judicial review and examples of constitutional rights cases, there will be no extensive focus on case outcomes or legal doctrine in regard to constitutional rights. The course aims to increase understanding of the structures that produce case law on constitutional rights, but not to study that case law in depth.

The selection of topics above is designed to complement to a certain degree the types of issues studied in the Constitutional Theory course. The course involves a deep comparative study of contract law, and is aimed equally at students with a common law or a civil law background, and indeed from any jurisdiction, within or outside Europe. The first is extremely relevant to legal practice. It concerns the implications of existing legislation and case-law emanating from the organs of the EU for national private laws of Member States. Within the UK, the understanding of the implications of EU law for English private law has a particular contemporary significance in light of the decision in the referendum that the UK should leave the EU.

Although the full repercussions of that referendum are yet to be worked out, the broader question of the impact of EU law on national private laws remains. European Private Law therefore combines issues from at least three branches of legal scholarship, ie European Law, national Private Law and Comparative Law. The course attempts to combine these disciplines by approaching particular problems from a European point of view as well as from the angle of various national private laws, thus necessarily adopting a comparative approach. The main part of the course consists of eight seminars devoted to a number of specific substantive issues taken from the law of contract, one of the core areas of private law in Europe and beyond.

These are studied, as far as possible, with reference to primary materials, ie legislation and case law. Examples from national legal systems will mainly be drawn from English, French and German law. If, however, another legal system offers an interesting and original solution, this will also be taken into account. All the required reading is in English. This approach already indicates that the course does not aspire to cover the whole of contract law with all its, say, constitutional and procedural implications, in all European legal systems, but is necessarily of a more topical nature, with a focus on selected core jurisdictions.

The search is for — common or diverging — solutions to legal problems arising in all legal systems including EU law and various proposals for further harmonisation, and taking into account reforms within national systems, notably the reform of the German law of obligations in and the reform of the French law of contract in Learning outcomes: to enable students to acquire knowledge and understanding in the area of comparative contract law, in a European context, and to discuss and assess critically at an advanced level the legal and policy issues arising therefrom.

Participants may expect to gain a deeper understanding of the nature of contract law, basic knowledge of the major European traditions in this area of the law, the ability to master a wide range of strongly heterogeneous sources, and an awareness of harmonisation projects at EU level. This half-option provides a comparative analysis of copyright law across the laws of the UK, the EU with a particular focus on France and Germany and the United States.

These jurisdictions have been chosen because they have driven the development of copyright law internationally initially through colonialism in the case of the UK and France and subsequently through dominance in multilateral fora and in bilateral trade negotiations. The course is arranged thematically and is structured around the issues and dilemmas that all copyright systems have to confront. What sorts of creation attract copyright protection?

What rights do we give to copyright owners? Who owns copyright and should freedom of contract be given primacy or should authors be protected from entering into disadvantageous agreements? When does some overriding goal of public policy justify the provision of a defence? The course will look at the conceptual frameworks, assumptions and matters of general legal policy that have produced the most noticeable areas of divergence. The course will also emphasise the need to be wary of crude and isolated comparisons and illustrate how countries can use superficially very different policy levers to produce outcomes that may not be all that different in practice.

Learning outcomes: a critical understanding of areas of convergence and divergence in copyright policymaking, a solid grasp of the international copyright system including the provisions of the Berne Convention and TRIPS Agreement , an appreciation of the philosophical, ethical and cultural differences that are said to make harmonisation of copyright laws problematic. The course offers an analytical framework and a comparative study of corporate governance and corporate law in major economies. Corporate governance, broadly defined, is the set of legal and non-legal tools that can be used to ensure that companies are run consistently with their purposes.

In many jurisdictions, this has traditionally meant making sure that those in charge of making day-to-day and strategic decisions on behalf of the company act in the interests of shareholders. While the emphasis in the teaching will be on legal institutions, and corporate law specifically, the course materials will also cover the ways in which corporate culture, market pressures, reputational constraints, and so on, affect corporate governance and corporate law in action. The course will be comparative , providing students with knowledge about corporate governance and corporate law core features in major jurisdictions and asking why governance regimes in most countries display some common features and why they diverge in other respects.

Closer attention will be given to the UK, the US and continental European jurisdictions, but an attempt will be made to include readings covering newly emerged countries such as India, Brazil and others. The course consists of a comparative study of major areas of the company laws of the UK, continental Europe in particular, Germany and the United States as well as an assessment of the work done by the European Union in the field of company law.

The three areas or jurisdictions selected for comparative study have, collectively, had a very significant impact on the development of company law throughout the world. An understanding of these thus assists students in understanding both the content of, and influences upon, many others. The approach taken is both functional and comparative, looking at a series of core problems with which any system of corporate law must deal, and analysing, from a functional perspective, the solutions adopted by the systems in question.

The course seeks to situate these solutions in the underlying concepts and assumptions of the chosen systems, as these often provide an explanation for divergences. Such a comparative study is intended to enable students to see their own system of company law in a new and more meaningful light, and to be able to form new views about its future development. Finally, a study of the ways in which the European Union is developing company law within its boundaries is also important, not only as illustrating, by a review of the harmonisation programme, the benefits to be derived from a comparative study in practice, but also because it shows new ways in which corporate vehicles can be developed to meet particular policy objectives.

The course assumes students have knowledge of the basic structure of corporate laws, such as would be gained from an undergraduate course regardless of jurisdiction. Learning outcomes: an understanding of 1 the functions of corporate law, 2 the reasons why it may differ across jurisdictions, and 3 the operation of corporate law in the UK, US, and EU, together with a capacity to apply that knowledge to other jurisdictions. The Comparative Corporate Tax course considers the basic elements of corporate tax systems in a structural setting. The focus is on three artificialities that arise from the nature of a corporation: the artificiality of a corporation as an income deriving entity; the artificiality of a corporation as a source of income in the form of dividends; and the artificiality of shares in corporations as assets separate from the assets held by a corporation.

The course does not deal with generic income tax issues applicable to both individuals and corporations , such as the calculation of business income. This course examines the relationship between human rights, criminal justice and the pursuit of security in a range of different jurisdictions. In addition to policing, and trial and pre-trial processes, the course considers the impact of national security measures in areas such as surveillance and extradition. Students are encouraged to think critically about the application of rights in all of these contexts, and to compare and contrast the approaches taken in different jurisdictions. Students will need to become familiar with reading and analysing cases, but no formal legal training is required. The right to equality is ubiquitous in human rights instruments in jurisdictions throughout the world.

Yet the meaning of equality and non-discrimination are contested. Is equality formal or substantive, and if the latter, what does substantive equality entail? Which groups should be protected from discrimination and how do we decide? How do we capture conceptualisations of equality in legal terms and when should equality give way to other priorities, such as conflicting freedoms or cost? The aim of this course is to examine these and other key issues through the prism of comparative law. Given the growing exchange of ideas across different jurisdictions, the comparative technique is a valuable analytic tool to illuminate this field. At the same time, the course pays attention to the importance of social, legal and historical context to the development of legal concepts and their impact.

The first half of the course approaches the subject thematically, while the second half of the course addresses individual grounds, ending with a consideration of remedial structures. Theory is integrated throughout the course, and the relationship between grounds of discrimination and other human rights is explored. International human rights instruments are also examined. Employment related discrimination is generally dealt with in the International and European Employment Law course. The course does not require previous knowledge of equality or discrimination law. Students are encouraged to participate in the activities of the Oxford Human Rights Hub, which is directed by Professor Fredman. Guest seminars organised by the Oxford Human Rights Hub take place on alternative Tuesdays at lunchtime during term time.

The Hub website features daily blogs on cutting edge new developments in human rights and equality law, and students on the course are encouraged both to read and to contribute to the blog. The Hub also produces webinars and podcasts on pressing current issues in comparative human rights and equality law. Human rights issues are both universal and contested. As human beings, we should all have human rights; yet there remains deep disagreement about the meaning and application of human rights. Courts in different jurisdictions face similar human rights questions; yet the answers often differ.

At the same time, there is a growing transnational conversation between courts, with cases in one jurisdiction being discussed and cited in other jurisdictions. This course uses comparative methodology to examine the ways in which central human rights questions are addressed in different jurisdictions. On the one hand, the shared language of human rights suggests that there should be similar solutions to comparable problems. On the other hand, there are important differences between legal institutions, socio-economic development, history and culture. The course involves a comparative study of key human rights issues, using the comparative method to highlight the key controversies in modern human rights law, and the possible range of responses in different jurisdictions.

It examines material from Europe, North America, India and South Africa, drawing on other jurisdictions where relevant, as well as international and regional human rights instruments. The course begins with a theoretical framework and then draws on this framework to analyse the meaning of particular human rights, their significance in theory and in practice, and the efficacy of the legal institutions designed to protect them. The course critically examines the divide between civil and political rights and socio-economic rights, and aims to transcend the divide by incorporating both kinds of rights within a thematic whole.

The course proceeds by way of in-depth study of specific rights in order to illustrate the complex interplay between theory, legal concepts and procedure, and between legal and non-legal sources of protection. It also examines the close connections between domestic and international human rights law. The course as a whole aims to provide the opportunity for in-depth comparative study, during which the appropriateness and utility of comparative legal techniques will be considered. Learning outcomes: an understanding of theoretical concepts of human rights and of how those concepts relate to legal concepts and are applied in different jurisdictions.

The Hub website features daily blogs on cutting edge new developments in human rights and equality law, and students on the course are encouraged both to read and to write for the blog. The Hub also produces webinars and podcasts on pressing current issues in comparative human rights and equality law and will be launching its first online course on Strategic Litigation and the Right to Education this autumn. Comparative Law is one of the most fascinating subjects in the legal syllabus. Comparative lawyers examine the differences and similarities of legal rules and doctrines across various legal systems.

Students of comparative law soon realise that many of the legal issues that they have examined in the first two years of their degree are often resolved in a very different manner in foreign jurisdictions. English private law in particular has certain features that exist in a radically different shape, or are not present at all in other jurisdictions. These include the doctrine of consideration, the structure of tortious liability and what is meant by fault and the entire law of trusts.

An awareness of such differences is vital for students if they wish to be prepared for the challenges of legal practice in a globalised world, where many of them will be faced with cross-border dealings on a daily basis. It also enables them, at a time when they are approaching the end of their degree, to build on the knowledge of English private law that they have been able to acquire in their first and second year. Studying comparative private law allows them to draw together various threads of the wider discourse on the foundations of private law and to reflect critically on the English law by comparison with other legal systems.

The course focuses on a number of selected topics, drawn from the areas of contract the conception of contract; performance, non-performance and remedies , tort the structure of extra-contractual liability; product liability , property law ownership, title and possession and trusts trust and fiduciary devices. English law is mostly compared to the private laws of France and Germany, the two most influential jurisdictions within the Western legal tradition other than England and the US.

Teaching is provided throughout Michaelmas and Hilary. For each of the selected topics there is an introductory two-hour lecture and a two-hour class contrasting English law with the solutions found in other jurisdictions. In there will also be a special series of lectures on relevant aspects of the new French contract law which came into force on 1 October , with a handful of amendments in force on 1 October Tutorials take place in Hilary Term and instead of producing four or more standard length tutorial essays students write two extended essays of 4, words on a topic of their choice. The teaching also includes a general lecture series provided at the beginning of Michaelmas.

This gives a general overview of the discipline of comparative law and provides a theoretical and methodological framework for the actual comparison to be made in the classes and tutorials. Students work with a wide range of materials including primary sources, such as cases and statutes, and legal writings drawn from articles and textbooks. All materials are made available in English, so no knowledge of foreign languages is required. Learning outcomes: an understanding of how certain fundamental aspects of private law are dealt with in jurisdictions beyond England and Wales and a capacity to reflect on the differences and similarities between practices in those jurisdictions and those of English common law.

Judicial protection against unlawful and sometimes lawful legislative and administrative acts or rules is of concern to individuals and companies in a variety of contexts. This course covers the central aspects of procedural and substantive judicial review under the public law of England, France and the European Union. The course will consider these issues against the constitutional framework which exists in the three systems. Throughout the course the emphasis will be on making comparisons between the different systems.

To facilitate this each of the topics studied will be analysed within the same week's work. The principal course objective is to enable students to acquire knowledge and understanding of the law in this area, and to be able to discuss at an advanced level elements of public law as they are evolving in England, France, and in the EU. It is possible to undertake the course exclusively on the basis of English language materials, but the ability to read French is an advantage, since some of the secondary sources on French law are only available in the French language.

There are, however, translations of the French case law used in the course. Teaching is primarily through lectures and seminars. Tutorials will be available in Hilary and Trinity term. The structure of the course is as follows. In Michaelmas term and the first half of Hilary Term there will be lectures which deal with the central aspects of procedural and substantive review in the systems studied. The lectures are designed to lay the foundations for seminar discussion that will take place in the second half of Hilary term, and the first two weeks of Trinity term. The lectures and seminars will cover the following topics: the constitutional foundations of the three systems; procedural review; review for jurisdictional error; improper purposes; irrationality; proportionality; legitimate expectations; equality; and fundamental rights; damages actions, including damages for losses caused by lawful governmental action; standing and remedies.

The Comparative Tax Systems course provides students with a comparative overview of the tax systems of various countries, with a view to developing a conceptual and practical understanding of the reasons why tax systems differ and why they are sometimes so similar. The objectives of the course are to help students understand the characteristics that tax systems have in common, the areas in which tax systems differ, and the factors legal, institutional, political, economic, social and cultural that cause the similarities and differences. The course seeks to answer a series of key questions such as: why is income tax the dominant tax in so many developed countries whereas developing countries rely so heavily on indirect taxes; why do some countries have more tax expenditures than others; why have value added taxes, or derivatives of such taxes, become the dominant consumption taxes worldwide; why are there so many differences in the way countries tax corporate income and capital gains tax; why do so few countries have wealth taxes; what are the best types of tax for different levels of government; how do tax systems and revenue authorities best manage issues of complexity; what is the role of environmental taxes in modern tax systems; how are tax systems likely to develop in the future; and what are the keys to success in tax reform?

The objective of the course is to provide students with an understanding of this area of law, together with the ability to subject it to critical legal and economic analysis. The course aims to cover the main substantive laws relating to competition within the EC, including the control of monopoly and oligopoly; merger control; anti-competitive agreements; and other anti-competitive practices. The emphasis is placed predominantly on EU competition law to reflect the importance it assumes in practice. UK competition law is also taught, both because of its value in providing a comparative study of two systems of competition law and because of its importance to the UK practitioner. The antitrust laws of the USA and competition laws of other jurisdictions are also referred to by way of comparison.

Visiting speakers: There is a programme of visiting speakers details of which are found on the CCLP website. Learning outcomes: a comprehensive understanding of the core principles of Competition Law and its application in the EU, UK and elsewhere. At the end of the course, students should be able to critically reflect upon the law, economic and legal principles underpinning competition law enforcement. The aim of the course is to enable students to critically reflect upon the core principles and policies at the heart of competition law.

In particular, to understand how the law governs business practices that may restrict competition in economic markets through private and public enforcement and to analyse how competition law can curb anticompetitive activities and facilitate free competition. Learning outcomes: at the end of the course, students should be able to: i understand how the law controls: a. The teaching in this course is done by way of lectures, seminars and tutorial sessions. The lecture series is devoted to examination of the relevant statutory and case law framework and to the discussion of basic economic concepts no prior knowledge of economics is required.

Lectures are normally held on weeks in MT. Each lecture lasts two hours. Two seminar sessions, each lasting two hours, will also be held in MT. The tutorial series provides practical experience in the application of competition law through problem solving. Tutorials will be arranged centrally by the competition law group. There will be two tutorials in MT and two in HT. For more information on the course see the Centre for Competition Law and Policy website at: www. The Conflict of Laws, or Private International Law, is concerned with private mainly commercial law cases, where the facts which give rise to litigation contain one or more foreign elements.

A court may be asked to give relief for breach of a commercial contract made abroad, or to be performed abroad, or to which one or both of the parties is not English. It may be asked to grant relief in respect of an alleged tort occurring abroad, or allow a claimant to trace and recover funds which were fraudulently removed, and so on. In each case, the court must decide whether to apply laws of English or foreign origin to determine the matters in dispute.

This exercise in identifying the law applicable is the second of three areas around which this course in the Conflict of Laws is centred. Prior to this comes the issue of jurisdiction; that is, when an English court will find that it has, and will exercise, jurisdiction over a defendant who is not English, or over a dispute which may have little to do with England or with English law. Closely allied to this is the question of what, if anything, may be done to impede proceedings which are underway in a foreign court but which in the view of one of the parties or of the court really should not be there at all.

The remaining third of the course is concerned with the recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments, to determine what effect, if any, these have in the English legal order. In England, the subject has had an increasingly European dimension, not only in relation to the jurisdiction of courts and the recognition and enforcement of judgements but also for choice of law as it applies to contractual and non-contractual obligations. The purpose of the course is to examine the areas studied by reference to case law and statute, and to aim at acquiring an understanding of the rules, their operation and inter-relationship, as would be necessary to deal with problems arising in practice in litigation with a cross border element.

Those taking the course will gain an understanding of the concepts and practical applications of private international law as it applies in legal systems around the world. This course covers the law of the constitution, including the structure and basic principles of the British constitution, and the impact of European Union law on the constitution. It also provides an introduction to the protection of human rights in English law.

Structure: separation of powers, the role of the courts, the powers of the executive including prerogative powers , devolution to Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland , the supremacy of European Community Law as it relates to national law, and the European principle of state liability. Questions will not be set on the detail of the legal effect of directives or on the detail of European Institutions. General principles: constitutional conventions including ministerial accountability , parliamentary sovereignty, the rule of law.

Human rights: the structure and effect of the Human Rights Act focusing in particular on its impact on parliamentary sovereignty and the judicial role ; the application of the Human Rights Act Whilst all topics are examinable, not all of the topics in the syllabus are required to be covered in tutorials. Tutors may focus on some parts of the course at the expense of other areas, and may include additional materials on their reading list that are not included on the core list.

Familiarity with the structures and underlying principles of the British constitution, and the impact of EU Law on the constitution. Students taking the BA in Jurisprudence Course 1 and Course 2 take Constitutional Law as one of the three papers for Law Moderations and will in general cover eight topics in tutorials. Students taking the BA in Jurisprudence with Senior Status may choose to take Constitutional Law as an option in the Final Honour School and these students will in general cover seven topics in tutorials.

The precise pattern of tutorial teaching varies from college to college. Lectures are given in Michaelmas and Hilary Terms on most aspects of the course. The purpose of this course is to provide an advanced understanding of the constitutional questions of the EU. We pose the general question whether the law of the European Union can make sense as a coherent order of principles. The subject matter is EU Law as it stands today, in light of the case law of the European Court of Justice and general principles at can be borrowed from domestic constitutional theory or public international law.

The readings will constitute mostly of cases of the ECJ and opinions of the Advocate General, combined with some cases from the United Kingdom and suitable readings in law and jurisprudence. We shall also examine the constitutional implications of the Eurozone crisis and its aftermath. The course is concerned with the theory of the nature, authority and legitimacy of constitutions. Topics include the historical origins and development of constitutional concepts; methods of separating the powers of governmental agencies; the ideal of the rule of law; institutional consequences of theories of democracy; the structure and function of legislatures and techniques for limiting their powers; the role of courts in review of legislation and executive action; the structure and operation of executive agencies; the framing and interpretation of written constitutions; the role of citizens and institutions in times of constitutional emergency; the nature and appropriate constitutional protection of basic rights; federalism and the constitutional implications of multiculturalism.

Learning outcomes: an understanding of the theory of the nature, authority and legitimacy of constitutions. This course is the study of constitutionalism in Asia from a comparative and interdisciplinary perspective. It has three features:. First, the course examines a variety of constitutionalism in Asia: liberal e. Second, the course situates Asian constitutions in politics and society. This course explores questions such as: what the constitutions do; how authoritarian constitutions and authoritarian constitutionalism look like in Asia; how and why the constitutions are made and changed; how the constitutions respond to the divided and plural societies; how local citizens participate in constitutional change; how various sectors of the international community involve in constitutional reform in Asia; how political parties and social movements influence constitutional change; how the basic structure doctrine diffuses across the region; and how courts shape and are shaped by state-building and social change; and how constitutionalism in Asia is informed by transnational norms.

Third, the course both sets Asia in general conversations on constitutionalism general comparison and compares constitutional systems within Asia intra-Asia comparison. The syllabus comprises the general principles of the law governing enforceable agreements. It is not concerned with special rules governing specific types of contracts, such as sale, carriage or employment, except where these are significant for the general principles. The principal topics normally discussed are: a the rules relating to the formation of agreements and to certain further requirements which must be satisfied to make agreements legally enforceable; b the contents of a contract and the rules governing the validity of terms which exclude or restrict liability and unfair terms in consumer contracts; c the nature and effects in a contractual context of mistake, misrepresentation, duress and undue influence; d the general principle that right and duties arising under a contract can only be enforced by and against the parties to it and its main exceptions; e performance and breach, including the right to terminate for failure in performance and the effects of wrongful repudiation; f supervening events as a ground of discharge under the doctrine of frustration; g remedies for breach of contract by way of damages, action for the agreed sum, specific performance and injunction.

Contract is one of the compulsory standard subjects within the Final Honour School syllabus. Particular areas are also explored in lectures. Candidates will be required to show a knowledge of such parts of the law of restitution as are directly relevant to the law of contract. Questions may be set in this paper requiring knowledge of the law of tort. The teaching is based on the assumption that questions will not be asked on contracts that are illegal or contrary to public policy or on gaming and wagering contracts; and that detailed knowledge will not be expected of formal requirements, agency, assignment or contractual capacity.

It is commonplace to say that we live in an age in which expressive, informational and technological subject matter are becoming increasingly important. Intellectual property is the primary means by which the law seeks to regulate such subject matter. It aims to promote innovation and creativity, and in doing so to support solutions to global environmental and health problems, as well as freedom of expression and democracy. It also seeks to stimulate economic growth and competition, accounting for its centrality to EU Internal Market and international trade and development policies.

And it is of enormous and increasing importance to business. In Copyright, Patents and Allied Rights we introduce two of the central intellectual property regimes. We ask why we have these regimes and how they operate at a national and European level. The course should have broad appeal, including for those interested in the arts and entertainment industries, technology, research and development, unfair competition, medical law and ethics, European harmonisation, and science and technology. Learning outcomes: an understanding of intellectual property law with specific reference to copyright and patents, and of various applications of this area of law.

Intellectual property is the field of law which protects valuable intangibles. It does so by recognizing property rights in cultural, innovative and informational subject matter. As we enter the Fourth Industrial Revolution, intellectual property rights are increasingly valuable. In Copyright, Trade Marks and Allied Rights we introduce two of the central intellectual property regimes. Some of the more challenging issues presently being debated are whether artificial intelligence algorithms which produce paintings or write poems ought to be recognised as authors and whether platforms such as YouTube should be responsible for the infringing uploads of their users. Trade mark law protects signs that indicate the commercial origin of goods and services such as the Apple logo.

However these marks also form the basis for valuable and evocative brands. Granting legal protection to this brand image dimension might insulate the trade mark owner against competition and prevent legitimate critiques, so where should the line be drawn? For each of these regimes, this course outlines protected subject matter of protection, relevant legal institutions such as registration systems , the suite of rights available and exceptions to those rights.

The primary focus is UK law, as it is shaped by its European and international context. This compulsory course taught in Michaelmas Term seeks to develop understanding of the organizing categories and central claims of a range of modern criminological perspectives of crime and social control. It equips students to recognize the main problems, questions, dichotomies and ideas that have shaped modern criminological thought, and to understand the nature of 'theory' and 'explanation' within criminology.

Throughout attention is paid to the contexts that shape the emergence and reception of modern criminological theory and to the modes of social intervention that different criminological perspectives expressly or implicitly propose. This compulsory course taught in Hilary term aims to explore a limited number of key issues in criminal justice. The seminars address critical issues confronting the criminal justice systems of most western nations. Seminars generally begin with a brief presentation on the subject and then open up for general discussion of key questions that are provided in this course outline. The focus is on criminal justice in England and Wales, but the readings also encompass issues and findings from other jurisdictions.

How can social scientists be sure that the data used in research are valid and reliable? This course is focused on the challenges and the opportunities that different methods of data collection have for validity and reliability of data. The scientific method, theory testing and research design will also be discussed. This option will provide students with a knowledge base from which to choose appropriate ways to collect valid and reliable data given a particular research question. It will also help students assess the weight that can be placed on the findings of published research in the field of criminology.

These weekly ninety-minute classes are compulsory for all students. Students are expected to come prepared to contribute to each class. This course runs through weeks of Trinity term but organisation will start in Hilary Term when we will meet to assign students their roles so that planning can begin in good time. At this meeting, five students will have the opportunity to volunteer to host the seminars. These students will be expected to consult with the MSc cohort for ideas on topics or themes to be covered in the seminars and possible speakers, so that the seminar series reflects the interests of the wider group.

Once the speakers have been approved by the Convenor, the hosts will invite the speakers and liaise with them in advance of the TT seminars, and then host the seminars all under the guidance of the Convenor. During the seminars in Trinity Term, 3 students will act as respondents at the end of the presentation, giving brief 5 minute responses to the paper, before opening the floor to questions, and one further student will write a short piece on the presentation for the Centre blog.

During Week 6, the cohort will work together to organise a two-day conference at which each MSc student will make a short presentation on their dissertation topic work in progress , and other students will be expected to ask questions and make helpful comments. The presenters will also receive feedback on their communication and presentation skills from the convenor. The course analyses policy and legal issues revolving around corporate control, taking into account the latest developments technological and other. It includes a theoretical analysis of the issues as well as illustrations of solutions found in major jurisdictions. The course first looks into the relevance of ownership structures and control in public corporations, the empirical evidence on the various forms of control and the implications for corporate governance and societal welfare of having a prevalence of listed companies with dispersed ownership as opposed to companies with controlling shareholders.

It then examines the various actions and transactions that can be used to replace corporate controllers, with or without their consent. The limited company is a hugely popular business vehicle, and the primary reason for this is its ability to act as a successful vehicle for raising business finance and diversifying financial risk. All companies need to raise money in order to function successfully. It is these "money matters" which are at the heart of corporate law, and an understanding of the ways in which companies can raise money, and the manner in which their money-raising activities are regulated, is central to an understanding of how companies function.

The aims of the course are a to explain the complex statutory provisions governing the issue and marketing of corporate securities, against the background of business transactions; b to explore the fundamental legal propositions around which corporate finance transactions are usually organised and c to examine the means by which money is raised by borrowing and quasi-debt and different methods of securing debt obligations.

Technical issues will therefore be placed in their economic and business context. There is a strong emphasis on the policy issues underlying the legal rules. The course focuses on the forms of corporate finance and on the structure and regulation of capital markets. The course also examines the attributes of the main types of securities issued by companies and the legal doctrines which are designed to resolve the conflicts of interests between shareholders and creditors. Consideration is given to the EU directives affecting the financial markets, especially the manner in which they have been implemented into English law.

Many of the issues arising are of international importance and the course examines the harmonisation of these matters within the EU. This course will be of interest to any student wishing to develop a knowledge of corporate law, as well as to those who are corporate finance specialists. No prior knowledge of the subject is required, nor is it necessary to have studied company law, though this will be of significant advantage. Those with no knowledge of company law will need to do some additional background reading prior to the start of seminars, and advice can be given on this issue.

Learning outcomes: an understanding of the means by which companies raise money and the laws which govern those activities. The insolvency of a company gives rise to a number of fascinating questions. Why are formal state-supplied procedures needed for the treatment of distressed companies? When should such procedures be triggered, and for whose benefit should they be conducted? To what extent should they be geared towards the rescue of the company or its business? What rights should those to whom the company is indebted - its creditors - have over the conduct of the proceedings? In what order of priority should their claims be paid? How should the managers of the distressed company be dealt with, in and outside of formal insolvency proceedings?

In this course, students explore these questions in three ways: first, by reading and evaluating theoretical and empirical literature on the purpose and design of corporate insolvency laws in general; second, by a close study of the formal insolvency and restructuring procedures available under English law, considering their operation in both purely domestic cases and in those with one or more cross-border elements; third, by exploring some of the core features of the insolvency laws of other jurisdictions, with a view to evaluating the procedures available under English law from a comparative and functional perspective.

Many students taking the course intend to embark upon or continue a career in corporate or commercial law, where an advanced understanding of English corporate insolvency law on which the insolvency laws of many other jurisdictions are modeled is particularly valuable. However the course has also proven to be of interest to students who are interested more generally in understanding the purposes of mandatory corporate law rules, and their impact on the cost and availability of finance. No prior knowledge of corporate insolvency law is required, nor is it necessary to have studied company law, though the latter is of some advantage. Are multi-national companies escaping taxation through artificial tax planning, transfer mis-pricing and profit shifting?

Where should they be paying tax and on what basis? Should we abolish corporation tax altogether and find some other way to tax business? Recent action by the G20, OECD, and EU, prompted by debates in the media, by politicians and pressure groups, illustrates that tax is not just a technical area. It raises ethical, political, constitutional and economic questions of fundamental importance.

But it is also an area where lack of understanding of the underlying law can result in distorted policy discussions. This course looks at both the law and the policy aspects of taxation and brings them together to create a more complete understanding of both. Tax law is central to all businesses and of significance to many business transactions. It is also critical for public finance. The course focuses on the taxation of domestic and multi-national businesses and integrates a rigorous examination of the law with the economic and other questions underpinning and arising from it.

It uses UK tax law as a starting point and for case studies leading to comparative and theoretical discussions. The course is thus suitable both for those with an interest in these broad questions as well as those wishing to specialise in and become tax or corporate law practitioners. This is a law course so no maths is needed- no calculations! It is designed to accommodate students from a variety of backgrounds and jurisdictions, whether or not they have studied tax before.

Counselor-educators such as Alexander ; Landreth; [63] [64] Muro ; Myrick and Holdin ; Nelson ; and Waterland began to contribute significantly, especially in terms of using play therapy as both an educational and preventive tool in dealing with children's issues. Roger Phillips, in the early s, was one of the first to suggest that combining aspects of cognitive behavioral therapy with play interventions would be a good theory to investigate.

It incorporates aspects of Beck's cognitive therapy with play therapy because children may not have the developed cognitive abilities necessary for participation in straight cognitive therapy. Little emphasis is placed on the children's verbalizations in these interactions but rather on their actions and their play. The efficacy of directive play therapy has been less established than that of nondirective play therapy, yet the numbers still indicate that this mode of play therapy is also effective.

Approximately 73 studies in each meta analysis examined nondirective play therapy, while there were only 12 studies that looked at directive play therapy. Once more research is done on directive play therapy, there is potential that effect sizes between nondirective and directive play therapy will be more comparable. The prevalence and popularity of video games in recent years has created a wealth of psychological studies centred around them. While the bulk of those studies have covered video game violence and addiction , some mental health practitioners in the West, are becoming interested in including such games as therapeutic tools. These are by definition "directive" tools since they are internally governed by algorithms.

Since the introduction of electronic media into popular Western culture, the nature of games has become "increasingly complex, diverse, realistic, and social in nature. Video games have been broken into two categories: "serious" games, or games developed specifically for health or learning reasons, and "off-the-shelf" games, or games without a clinical focus that may be re-purposed for a clinical setting. Most of the current research relating to electronic games in therapeutic settings is focused on alleviating the symptoms of depression, primarily in adolescents. However, some games have been developed specifically for children with anxiety and Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD , [70] [71] The same company behind the latter intends to create electronic treatments for children on the autism spectrum , and those living with Major depressive disorder , among other disorders.

Preliminary research has been done with small groups, and the conclusions drawn warrant studying the issue in greater depth. Role-playing games RPGs are the most common type of electronic game used as part of therapeutic interventions. These are games where players assume roles, and outcomes depend on the actions taken by the player in a virtual world. There are also those who underscore the ease in the treatment process since playing an RPG as a treatment situation is often experienced as an invitation to play, which makes the process safe and without risk of exposure or embarrassment. Taking place in a fantasy world, SPARX users play through seven levels, each lasting about half an hour, and each level teaching a technique to overcome depressive thoughts and behaviours.

Reviews of the study have found the game treatment comparable to CBT-only therapy. An edition developed specifically to aid clinicians, ReachOutPro, offers more tools to increase patients' engagement. Biofeedback sometimes known as applied psychophysiological feedback media is more suited to treating a range of anxiety disorders. Biofeedback tools are able to measure heart rate, skin moisture, blood flow, and brain activity to ascertain stress levels, [82] with a goal of teaching stress management and relaxation techniques.

The development of electronic games using this equipment is still in its infancy, and thus few games are on the market. The Journey to Wild Divine 's developers have asserted that their products are a tool, not a game, though the three instalments contain many game elements. Conversely, Freeze Framer's design is reminiscent of an Atari system. Three simplistic games are included in Freeze Framer's 2. Brain waves of participants were monitored during play of commercial video games available on PlayStation , and the difficulty of the games increased as participants' attention waned. The efficacy of this treatment is comparable to traditional ADHD intervention.

Several online-only or mobile games Re-Mission , Personal Investigator, [86] Treasure Hunt, [87] and Play Attention [88] have been specifically noted for use in alleviating disorders other than those for anxiety and mood. Many of them are low-cost or even free, and the games do not need to be complex to be of benefit. Playing a three-minute game of Tetris has the potential to curb a number of cravings, [92] a longer play time could reduce flashback symptoms from posttraumatic stress disorder , [93] and an initial study found that a visual-spatial game such as Tetris or Candy Crush , when played closely following a traumatic event, could be used as a "'therapeutic vaccine" to prevent future flashbacks.

While the field of allowing electronic media a place in a therapist's office is new, the equipment is not necessarily so. Most western children are familiar with modern PCs, consoles, and handheld devices even if the practitioner is not. An even more recent addition to interacting with a game environment is virtual reality equipment, which both adolescent and clinician might need to learn to use properly. This research is based on traditional exposure therapy and has been found to be more effective for participants than for those placed in a wait list control group , [89] though not as effective as in-person treatments.

One study tracked two groups — one group receiving a typical, lengthier treatment while the other was treated via shorter VRET sessions — and found that the effectiveness for VRET patients was significantly less at the six-month mark. In the future, clinicians may look forward to using electronic media as a way to assess patients, [85] as a motivational tool, [95] and facilitate social in-person and virtual interactions.

In he compiled Publication of The Self , the result of the dialogues between Moustakas, Abraham Maslow , Carl Rogers, and others, forging the humanistic psychology movement. In Moustakas continued his journey into play therapy and published his novel The child's discovery of himself. Moustakas' work as being concerned with the kind of relationship needed to make therapy a growth experience. His stages start with the child's feelings being generally negative and as they are expressed, they become less intense, the end results tend to be the emergence of more positive feelings and more balanced relationships. Several approaches to play therapy have been developed for parents to use in the home with their own children.

Training in nondirective play for parents has been shown to significantly reduce mental health problems in at-risk preschool children. Filial therapy has been shown to help children work through trauma and also resolve behavior problems. Another approach to play therapy that involves parents is Theraplay , which was developed in the s. At first, trained therapists worked with children, but Theraplay later evolved into an approach in which parents are trained to play with their children in specific ways at home. Theraplay is based on the idea that parents can improve their children's behavior and also help them overcome emotional problems by engaging their children in forms of play that replicate the playful, attuned, and empathic interactions of a parent with an infant.

Studies have shown that Theraplay is effective in changing children's behavior, especially for children suffering from attachment disorders. In the s, Stanley Greenspan developed Floortime , a comprehensive, play-based approach for parents and therapists to use with autistic children. Lawrence J. Cohen has created an approach called Playful Parenting, in which he encourages parents to play with their children to help resolve emotional and behavioral issues. Parents are encouraged to connect playfully with their children through silliness, laughter, and roughhousing. In , Garry Landreth and Sue Bratton developed a highly researched and structured way of teaching parents to engage in therapeutic play with their children.

It is based on a supervised entry level training in child centred play therapy. They named it Child Parent Relationship Therapy. More recently, Aletha Solter has developed a comprehensive approach for parents called Attachment Play, which describes evidence-based forms of play therapy, including non-directive play, more directive symbolic play, contingency play, and several laughter-producing activities. Parents are encouraged to use these playful activities to strengthen their connection with their children, resolve discipline issues, and also help the children work through traumatic experiences such as hospitalisation or parental divorce.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Theraplay. Basic types. Applied psychology. Main article: Donald Woods Winnicott. Attention and Interpretation. London: Tavistock Publications. Handbook of Play Therapy. ISBN Play, dreams and imitation in childhood. New York: W. Playing and Reality. London: Tavistock. American Journal of Play. ISSN The Journal for Specialists in Group Work. S2CID January International Journal of Play Therapy. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy. PMID The Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research. PMC Emile, or On Education.

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Researchers see a role for games such as". ISSN X. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy. The Journal of Family Health Care. Journal of Developmental and Learning Disorders. Necheles, C. Ferch, and D. Bruckman Pilot study of a parent training program for young children with autism: The P.

Do orientation materials help students successfully analyse the theoretical perspectives taken to learning and development through play online courses? The need of analyse the theoretical perspectives taken to learning and development through play Standardized Testing Vs Standardized Testing also resonate with the recommendations made by Wen et al. Proceedings ascilite Dunedin— A learning journal is a collection of notes, observations, thoughts and other relevant materials built up The Haunted House Analysis a period of time and recorded together.

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