✎✎✎ Synthesis Essay On Canines

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Synthesis Essay On Canines



There are seven Synthesis Essay On Canines taxonomic groups. In humans it measures Synthesis Essay On Canines cm. Synthesis Essay On Canines of Synthesis Essay On Canines World Archaeology — The width is determined by Synthesis Essay On Canines type of habitat, i. It offers a comprehensive review of the meaning, layers, and intersections of Maya clothing over time…and should be of Synthesis Essay On Canines interest to readers of Sample ATTN Personal Statement blog. Tardigrade Lab Downloads Students will Synthesis Essay On Canines the microscopic world found living on haig the butcher of the somme and mosses. Beyond the optimum Synthesis Essay On Canines intensity the Synthesis Essay On Canines of photosynthesis becomes constant.

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This duration ensures that the leaf has photosynthesized. Put the leaf in boiling water for 10 minutes. This kills the protoplasm, denatures the enzymes and stops any chemical reactions in the leaf. Remove the leaf and put it in a boiling tube containing methylated spirit or alcohol and boil in a water bath. Boiling with methylated spirit or alcohol decolourises the leaf removes the chlorophyll.

This ensures that the leaf becomes white so that colour changes can be observed easily when iodine is added. Remove the leaf and wash off in hot water to remove methylated spirit and to soften the leaf. Spread the leaf on a white tile and add drops of iodine solution onto the leaf and observe. Factors affecting the rate of photosynthesis a Carbon IV oxide concentration While the concentration of carbon IV oxide in the atmosphere is fairly constant at 0. At this point, other factors such as light intensity, water and temperature become limiting factors.

Beyond the optimum light intensity the rate of photosynthesis becomes constant. To this effect, plants photosynthesize faster on bright and sunny days than on dull cloudy days. Most plants require red and blue wavelengths of light for photosynthesis. Light duration also affects photosynthesis rate. At very low temperatures the rate of photosynthesis is slow because the enzymes are inactive. As temperature increases, the rate of photosynthesis increases because the enzymes become more active.

At extreme level of water shortage, rate of photosynthesis will be severely affected. Experiment to investigate the gas produced during photosynthesis Requirements Water plant e. Procedure a Set up the apparatus as shown in the figure below b Place the set up in the sunlight to allow photosynthesis to take place. Note: In this experiment, sodium hydrogen carbonate is added to the water to boost the amount of carbon IV oxide in the water since water has a low concentration of carbon IV oxide. A water plant is also selected because Water plants are adapted to photosynthesis under the low light intensity in water where terrestrial plants cannot easily photosynthesize. This experiment can also be used to investigate the factors affecting the rate of photosynthesis: 1 Carbon IV oxide concentration : Carry out the experiment using different amounts of dissolved sodium hydrogen carbonate e.

Illuminate the plant and vary the distance between the set up and the light source While recording the time it takes for the gas jar to fill or counting the number of bubbles peer unit time. Experiments on factors necessary for photosynthesis Light Requirements Methylated spirit, iodine solution, water, white tile, droppers, beaker, source of heat, boiling tube, light proof material e. Procedure Cover two or more leaves of a potted plant with a light proof material. Place the plant in a dark place for 48 hours keeping the plant in the dark for 48 hours is to ensure that all the starch in it is used up. This makes the leaves ideal for investigating whether starch would form in the experimental period. This is called destarching. Transfer the potted plant to light for 5 hours.

Detach and uncover the leaves and immediately test for starch in one of the covered leaves and one that was not covered. Chlorophyll For this experiment, a variegated leaf is required. This is a leaf in which some patches lack chlorophyll. These patches could be yellow. They lack chlorophyll hence photosynthesis does not take place in them. Procedure Detarch or remove variegated leaf that has been exposed to light for at least three hours. Draw a large diagram of the leaf to show the distribution of the chlorophyll Test the leaf for starch and record observations.

Chemicals Of Life These are chemical compounds that constitute the living organisms. Biochemistry is the branch of biology that deals with the study of the chemicals of life and their reactions. Chemicals of life include carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. Carbohydrates Are compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in the ratio of l. They have a general formula CH2O n where n represents the number of carbon atoms. Carbohydrates are grouped into three categories: Monosaccharides These are the simplest carbohydrates.

They include glucose, fructose, galactose. Their general formula is C6H12O6. Note: Most fruits are sweet tasting because they contain a lot of monosaccharides. Monosaccharide units can be combined to form complex carbohydrate molecules through a process known as condensation. Water molecules are produced in the process. Functions They are the chief respiratory substrate. They are broken down to release energy in the body. They are condensed to form complex important carbohydrates. Disaccharides These are complex sugars formeed by linking two monosaccharide units through condensation.

The bond that holds two monosaccharide units is called glycosidic bond. Examples of disaccharides include: Maltose-common in germinating seeds Sucrose-fruits and sugar cane. Sucrose is the form in which carbohydrates are transported in plants Lactose- found in milk Properties of Disaccharides They are sweet tasting They are crystallizable They are water soluble While they are non reducing sugars, some such as maltose is sugar reducing and is known as a complex reducing sugar. They can be broken down into their constituent monosaccharide units through hydrolysis.

Hydrolysis is the process through which complex molecules are broken down in the presence of water molecules. In living systems, hydrolysis is carried out by enzymes. However, in the laboratory, hydrolysis can be carried out by boiling the disaccharide in dilute aid such as hydrochloric acid. Functions They are hydrolyzed into monosaccharides and respired on to yield energy They are the form in which carbohydrates are transported in plants due to their soluble and inert nature. Polysaccharides These are formed through linking of numerous monosacchride units through condensation. Their general formula is C6H10O5 ,, where n is a very large number.

Properties of polysaccharides They are non sweet They do not dissolve in water They are non crystalline They are non-reducing sugars Examples of polysaccharides a Starch - Made by linking numerous glucose molecules. It is a form in which carbohydrates are stored in plants. It is broken down to glucose in animals when blood glucose falls. It is a component of the cell wall d Chitin - A structural carbohydrate found in cell wall of fungi and arthropod exoskeletons Functions of polysaccharides They are storage carbohydrates; their insolubility and inertness makes them ideal for storing carbohydrates.

They are structural carbohydrates e. However, they contain lesser oxygen but higher hydrogen compared to carbohydrates. Building units for lipids are fatty acids and glycerol. To synthesize a molecule of lipid, three fatty acids and a glycerol molecule are linked through a condensation reaction. There is one type of glycerol but numerous fatty acids There are different types of fatty acids. The property of a lipid therefore depends on the type of fatty acids that link up with the glycerol. There are complex lipids such as phospholipids, steroids, waxes and cholesterol. These also form through condensation. Properties of lipids Fats easily change to oil when heated while oils easily solidify when cooled. They are insoluble in water but readily dissolve in organic solvents such as chloroform to form emulsions They are inert hence can be stored in tissues of organisms.

Functions They are a source of energy when oxidized. They yield more energy compared to carbohydrates when oxidized per unit weight. However, they are less preferred as source of energy because they require a lot of oxygen to oxidize. In addition, they are insoluble hence not easy to transport to respiratory sites. They are a source of metabolic water. When oxidized, they yield a lot of metabolic water. This explains why some desert animals such as camels store large quantities of fat in their bodies. Lipids offer protection to internal organs as they are deposited around them to act as shock absorbers. Lipids provide heat insulation when stored underneath the skin as they are poor conductors of heat hence do not conduct heat away from the body.

Organisms in cold areas tend to be short and plump as they have fatter fat adipose. Lipids form structural compounds for instance phospholipids in cell membrane. Complex lipids such as waxes in leaves help minimize water loss through transpiration. Some lipids mediate communication between cells Proteins These are compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. In addition, they also contain nitrogen and sometimes phosphorous or sulphur or both. Some proteins molecules contain other elements. In particular, haemoglobin contains iron. Proteins are made up of amino acids. There are about twenty known amino acids.

Amino acids are of two kinds: a Essential - These are those amino acids that cannot be synthesized by the body systems hence have to be supplied in the diet. An amino acid has an amino group, carboxyl group, hydrogen atom and an alkyl, R group. Amino acids differ from each other by the alkyl group. Proteins are of two kinds: a First class proteins - Contain all essential amino acids b Second class proteins - Proteins lack one or more essential amino acids Protein synthesis Two amino acids combine through a condensation process to form a dipeptide molecule Several amino acids link up to form a polypeptide chain.

Proteins are made up of long chain polypeptides. Properties of a protein depend on the type of amino acids present in its chain and the sequence in which the amino acids link up in the polypeptide chain. Properties of Proteins They dissolve in Water to form colloidal suspensions in which the particles remain suspended in water. Strong acids, bases, detergents and organic solvents also denature proteins. They are amphoten'c- possess both basic and basic properties.

This property enables them to combine with other non protein substances to form conjugated proteins such as: Mucus- Protein plus carbohydrate Haemoglobin- Protein plus iron Functions of proteins a They are structural compounds of the body. Cell membrane is protein in nature. Hair, nails and hooves are made up of protein keratin. Hormones are chemical messengers while enzymes regulate the speed of metabolic reactions. Haemoglobin molecule plays a crucial role in transportation of respiratory gases.

Enzymes What are enzymes? Are organic catalysts that are protein in nature and regulate the rate of metabolic reactions. They speed up or slow down the rate of metabolic reactions but to not get used up in the process. Types of enzymes a Extracellular : Are produced within the cells but used outside the cells e. Importance of Enzymes They speed up the rate of chemical reactions that would otherwise be too slow to support life. Digestive enzymes breakdown complex food substances into simple foods that can be utilized by the cells. Some metabolic enzymes such as catalase play a vital role in detoxification making poisonous substances less harmful.

Enzyme nomenclature Two systems of naming enzymes have been adopted. Trivial naming This is where an enzyme is named by the scientist who discovered it. In trivial naming all enzyme names end in prefix —in. Examples Pepsin Theodor Schwann, German physiologist Ptyalin Anselme Payen, a French chemist- Substrates Amylose starch The reaction is then catalyzed and the end products released. The enzyme is free to bind with another substrate molecule.

The enzymes can be used again and again. Properties of Enzymes They are protein in nature; hence affected by temperature and pH. They are substrate specific e. They mostly take part in reversible reactions. They regulate the rate of metabolic activities but are not used up. Factors affecting enzyme activity Temperature. Substrate Concentration. Enzyme Concentration. Enzyme co-factors and co-enzymes; Fe, Mg, Zn, Cu ions. Enzyme inhibitors. There are few collisions leading to low enzyme activity. As temperature increases, the kinetic energy of the enzyme and substrate molecules increases leading to increased collisions hence increase in enzyme activity.

This is because enzymes get denatured and their active sites get destroyed. Some enzymes work best under alkaline conditions e. Some also work better under acidic conditions e. However, most intracellular enzymes work better under neutral conditions. Altering the pH conditions would affect enzyme activity. For instance, sucrase enzymes can only breakdown sucrose. Increase in substrate concentration increases the rate of enzyme activity since more active sites of the enzymes will be occupied and there will also be an increase in enzyme- substrate collisions leading to increased reaction.

The reaction increases up to a point at which it becomes constant. At this point, all active sites are utilized. The enzymes become the limiting factor of reaction. Increasing enzyme concentration would increase the rate of enzyme activity. At low enzyme concentration, rate of enzyme activity is low because there are fewer sites and also fewer enzyme-substrate collisions that would lead to reactions. Increasing enzyme concentration increases rate of enzyme activity since there will be an increase in number of active sites and enzyme-substrate collisions.

At optimum enzyme concentration, substrate concentration is the limiting factor. Increasing substrate concentration increases the rate of reaction. Without them, most enzymes would not function properly. Co- factors include mineral ions like iron, magnesium, copper, manganese, zinc as well as vitamins. They are used again and again since like enzymes, they do not get used up during the reactions. Some enzymes will not function without them.

Most co-enzymes are derivatives of vitamins. They are of two types: 1. Competitive 2. Non- competitive Competitive inhibitors These are chemical substances which are structural analogs of the substrates i. They bind with the enzymes and do not disentangle easily they stay in the enzyme active site for a long time thereby slowing down the rate of enzyme activity. The reaction can be increased by increasing the substrate concentration. Non competitive inhibitors These are inhibitors that do not resemble the substrate molecules but they combine with the enzyme at any site other the active site and alter the structure of the active site of the enzyme. The normal substrate, therefore, fails to bind to the active site leading to decreased rate of reaction.

Note that these substances do not compete for the active sites of the enzymes. The enzymes are destroyed permanently hence the effect cannot be reversed. Examples of non competitive inhibitors Heavy metals such as lead, mercury, silver , Cyanide, organophosphates such as malathion. Heterotrophism This is a mode of nutrition in which organisms take in already manufactured complex food substances such as carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. Heterotrophs are organisms that feed on already manufactured food substances. These substances are broken down in the bodies of the Heterotrophs into simple soluble food substances that can be absorbed and be utilized by the cells.

Modes of Heterotrophism There are four main heterotrophic modes on nutrition: Holozoic- Where organisms ingest, digest and assimilate solid complex food substances. Saprophytism — Where organisms feed on dead decaying matter causing decomposition. Parasitism- a feeding association in which one organism parasite feeds on or obtain nutrients on another organism, the host. The parasite benefits but the host does not. Some of the parasites cause diseases to the hosts and damage their tissues thereby weakening them. Dentition Large animals depend on complex manufactured food substances. These food substances once ingested must be broken down to simpler forms that can be utilized by the cells. The breakdown is both physical and chemical. Most of the large animals have teeth to enhance physical breakdown of the complex food substances.

Dentition refers to the description of types of teeth, their arrangement and specialization. Types of Dentition Homodont dentition: Teeth arrangement and description where an organism has teeth of the same size and shape. Fishes and birds have homodont dentition. Heterodont dentition: where an organism has teeth of different sizes and shapes that is incisors, canines, premolars and molars. Heterodont dentition is common with mammals and reptiles. They have one root.

Canines Are conical teeth with sharp pointed edges modified for seizing and tearing prey among carnivores. They have one root b. Premolar and molar They have cusps on their surface to suit their grinding action. Premolars have two roots. Molars have either two or three roots. Classes of Holozoic Heterotrophs Holozoic heterotrophs are classified according to the type of food they consume. These are: a Herbivores: heterotrophs that exclusively feed on vegetation. Dentition of heterotrophs is based on the kind of food they consume. Dental Formula This is the of the number, type and position of teeth in the jaws of animals Number of teeth recorded represents half the total teeth in the upper and lower jaws.

The teeth names are abbreviated as a i -incisors. An animal was found to have no incisors and canines on the upper jaw. It had six premolars and four molars on the upper jaw. On the lower jaw, it had eight incisors, no canines, six premolars and six molars. Herbivores Most do not have upper incisors. Instead they have a homy pad against which grass is pressed and cut by the lower incisors. They have a long tongue that assists in the cutting and moving food. They have a gap in the lower jaw separating canines from premolars known as diastema which allows the tongue to manipulate food.

Herbivore teeth have open enamel which allows for continuous growth to replace worn out surfaces due to grinding. Their incisors are wedge shaped to cut grass and vegetation together with the horny pad The jaws have movable joints to allow the sideways movement of lower jaw to facilitate grinding of grass. Carnivores Their incisors are chisel shaped and closely fitting to seize the prey. Their canines are long, conical and curved to hold, kill and tear the prey. Their jaws are attached to powerful muscles that move the jaws up and down Carnivores are adapted to fast running by possessing well developed leg muscles. Dental Diseases a Dental Carries Caused by lack of hard food, too much sweet or sugary food, lack of calcium in diet, lack of vitamin D, lack of cleaning teeth and general ill-health.

The bacteria in the mouth break down the sugars to form energy and organic acids. The acids corrode the enamel. Common in adults than children. Are of two types: a Gingivitis - Characterized by reddening of gums, bleeding and pus in the gums. Dental Hygiene Proper teeth care requires: Regular cleaning or brushing teeth after every meal Avoid eating too much sugary foods. Eating hard foods e. Eating diet rich in calcium, phosphate and vitamins A, C and D. Teeth should be used for their correct purpose. Regularly visit the dentist if necessary.

Digestion The process through which complex food substances is broken down physically and chemically into simpler food substances that can be absorbed by body cells. However, small molecules like those of vitamins, mineral salts and water are directly absorbed into the bloodstream without undergoing digestion. Digestion occurs in the mouth, stomach, duodenum and ileum. There are glands also associated to the digestive system. These include the pancreas, gall bladder, salivary glands. Digestion in the mouth At the mouth both physical and chemical digestion takes place. The food is mechanically broken down by the teeth through grinding and chewing.

This process is called mastication. Mastication reduces the food into small size to increase the surface area for enzymatic action. The tongue helps in manipulation of the food as it mixes the food with the saliva secreted from the salivary glands. The salivary glands are: a Sublingual salivary gland; beneath the tongue b Sub mandibular gland: under the jaw c Parotid gland: Found in the cheeks in front of the ears. All the glands have ducts through which saliva is directed to the mouth. The tongue also rolls the food into small round masses called boluses. The boluses are then pushed to the back of the mouth to initiate the swallowing process.

The boluses are then moved to the stomach via oesophagus. Movement is facilitated by a wave of muscular contractions of longitudinal and circular muscles of the oesophagus known as peristalsis. Digestion in the stomach Upon swallowing, the boluses move down the gullet to the stomach. The boluses enter the stomach via the cardiac sphincter a muscular valve. The stomach has thick circular and longitudinal muscle layers which contract and relax to produce movements that mix the contents of the stomach. Mucus is secreted by goblet cells in the epithelial membrane of the alimentary canal. Duodenum The chyme then passes down to the Duodenum through pyloric sphincter. Duodenum is the first section of the small intestine. In humans it measures about cm.

Secretions that contribute to digestion at the duodenum are received from: a Gall bladder in the liver- Secretes bile. Arrival of food in the duodenum stimulates secretion of i. Secretin hormone from the pancreas : Secretin stimulates secretion of pancreatic juice into the duodenum ii. Cholecystokinin from the duodenal wall : This stimulates secretion of bile from the gall bladder. Pancreatic juice contains: a Pancreatic amylase - This facilitates breakdown of the remaining starch into maltose b Trypsin - Digests proteins into peptides. It also neutralizes the acidic chyme. The bile juice contains bile salts that include sodium glycocholate and sodium taurocholate. These salts: i. The salts also provide a suitable alkaline medium for action of the duodenal enzymes.

In addition they neutralize the acidic chyme. Digestion in the ileum Ileum is the final part of the small intestine. The arrival of chyme in ileum stimulates secretion of intestinal juice which contains: a Maltase : speeds up breakdown of maltose to glucose b Sucrase : speeds breakdown of sucrose to glucose and fructose c Peptidase : speeds breakdown of peptides to amino acids d Lipase : speeds breakdown of lipids to fatty acids and glycerol. At the end of digestion in the ileum, the resulting watery emulsion is called chyle ; it contains soluble end products of digestion ready to be absorbed.

Absorption This is the process through which the soluble end products of digestion diffuse into the cellular lining of the villi. Absorption of micronutrients such as water soluble vitamins, mineral salts and alcohol are absorbed at the stomach. Alcohol is equally absorbed here without undergoing digestion. Most absorption of end products of digestion occurs in the ileum. Molecules of amino acids and glucose pass through the epithelial lining and capillary walls into the blood system by active transport.

The capillaries drain into the hepatic portal vein where the absorbed products are transported to the liver before they are circulated to other body parts. The fatty acids are absorbed into the lacteals of the villi which drain into the lymphatic vessels. The lymphatic vessels later join the blood circulatory system which transports them to other body parts. The ileum is adapted to absorption in many ways a It is long to provide a large surface area for absorption b It has a narrow lumen so as to bring the digested food into close contact with the walls of the ileum for easier absorption c It is highly coiled to slow down movement of food thus allowing more time for digestion and absorption of food.

Caecum and Appendix While these have no roles in man, they play vital roles in the ruminant animals and other herbivores. They contain some bacteria which secrete cellulose enzyme. These enzymes digest cellulose since most digestive systems cannot secrete cellulose digesting enzyme. The bacteria and the herbivores are in a symbiotic relationship. Assimilation This is process of incorporation of the end products of digestion into the cell metabolism.

It involves utilization of the end products of digestion into various uses. Vitamins These are organic chemical compounds that are essential for a healthy body. Some are synthesized in the body through the action of some microorganisms while some are also obtained in fresh fruits and vegetables. Vitamins are destroyed when foods are excessively cooked. They are required in small quantities. They play vital roles in metabolic reactions. Lack of vitamins in the body results into abnormities that manifest through various deficiency diseases.

These deficiency diseases can be corrected by inclusion of the deficient vitamins in the diet or taking the vitamin supplements. There are two classes of vitamins owing to their solubility: a Fat soluble vitamins - They dissolve in fats and are often stored in the liver. Depending on body requirements, mineral salts are of two classes: a Macro-nutrients : Nutrients required in large quantities. These include nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorous, calcium, sodium, iron and magnesium. Include copper, manganese, boron, iodine and cobalt. Mainly composed of cellulose from plant cell walls. They are found in full cereals, fresh fruit fibres like lemons, oranges, mangoes and vegetables. Importance of roughage a It rubs against the walls of the alimentary canal stimulating secretion of digestive enzymes and mucus to lubricate the epithelial lining.

Anna is at a stage of her life when she's beginning to wonder who she really is. In her 40s, she has separated from her husband, her daughter is all grown up, and her mother—the only parent who raised her—is dead. Searching through her mother's belongings one day, Anna finds clues about the African father she never knew. His student diaries chronicle his involvement in radical politics in s London. Anna discovers that he eventually became the president—some would say dictator—of a small nation in West Africa. And he is still alive When Anna decides to track her father down, a journey begins that is disarmingly moving, funny, and fascinating.

Like the metaphorical bird that gives the novel its name, Sankofa expresses the importance of reaching back to knowledge gained in the past and bringing it into the present to address universal questions of race and belonging, the overseas experience for the African diaspora, and the search for a family's hidden roots. Examining freedom, prejudice, and personal and public inheritance, Sankofa is a story for anyone who has ever gone looking for a clear identity or home, and found something more complex in its place.

Weather: A Novel. A lively and ambitious family novel. His wife, Keila, desperate for a life with a little more intimacy and a little less Weather Channel, feels she has no choice but to end their marriage. Their three daughters—Claudia, a television chef with a hard-hearted attitude; Olivia, a successful architect who suffers from gentrification guilt; and Patricia, a social media wizard who has an uncanny knack for connecting with audiences but not with her lovers—are blindsided and left questioning everything they know. Each will have to take a critical look at her own relationships and make some tough decisions along the way. Andrea Bartz. A novel with crazy twists and turns that will have you ditching your Friday night plans for more chapters.

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As Heller colors in the experiences that have led Elle to this day, we arrive at her ultimate decision with all its complexity. Tender yet devastating, The Paper Palace considers the tensions between desire and dignity, the legacies of abuse, and the crimes and misdemeanors of families. Seven Days in June. Tia Williams. Eva Mercy is a single mom and bestselling erotica writer who is feeling pressed from all sides.

When Shane and Eva meet unexpectedly at a literary event, sparks fly, raising not only their buried traumas, but the eyebrows of the Black literati. What no one knows is that fifteen years earlier, teenage Eva and Shane spent one crazy, torrid week madly in love. While they may be pretending not to know each other, they can't deny their chemistry—or the fact that they've been secretly writing to each other in their books through the years. Over the next seven days, amidst a steamy Brooklyn summer, Eva and Shane reconnect—but Eva's wary of the man who broke her heart, and wants him out of the city so her life can return to normal.

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Bailey, who lost her mother tragically as a child. Bailey, who wants absolutely nothing to do with her new stepmother. Hannah and Bailey set out to discover the truth. With its breakneck pacing, dizzying plot twists, and evocative family drama, The Last Thing He Told Me is a riveting mystery, certain to shock you with its final, heartbreaking turn. Northern Spy: A Novel. Flynn Berry. I loved this thrill ride of a book.

The IRA may have gone underground in the two decades since the Good Friday Agreement, but they never really went away, and lately bomb threats, security checkpoints, and helicopters floating ominously over the city have become features of everyday life. As the news reporter requests the public's help in locating those responsible for the robbery, security footage reveals Tessa's sister, Marian, pulling a black ski mask over her face. The police believe Marian has joined the IRA, but Tessa is convinced she must have been abducted or coerced; the sisters have always opposed the violence enacted in the name of uniting Ireland.

And besides, Marian is vacationing on the north coast. Tessa just spoke to her yesterday. When the truth about Marian comes to light, Tessa is faced with impossible choices that will test the limits of her ideals, the bonds of her family, her notions of right and wrong, and her identity as a sister and a mother. Walking an increasingly perilous road, she wants nothing more than to protect the one person she loves more fiercely than her sister: her infant son, Finn. Riveting, atmospheric, and exquisitely written, Northern Spy is at once a heart-pounding story of the contemporary IRA and a moving portrait of sister- and motherhood, and of life in a deeply divided society. Infinite Country: A Novel. Patricia Engel. I often wonder if we are living the wrong life in the wrong country.

Talia is being held at a correctional facility for adolescent girls in the forested mountains of Colombia after committing an impulsive act of violence that may or may not have been warranted. If she misses her flight, she might also miss her chance to finally be reunited with her family. How this family came to occupy two different countries, two different worlds, comes into focus like twists of a kaleidoscope. Award-winning, internationally acclaimed author Patricia Engel, herself a dual citizen and the daughter of Colombian immigrants, gives voice to all five family members as they navigate the particulars of their respective circumstances.

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After We Collided. The inspiration behind the major motion picture After We Collided! Tessa has everything to lose. Hardin has nothing to lose Life will never be the same. After a tumultuous beginning to their relationship, Tessa and Hardin were on the path to making things work. Hardin will always be But is he really the deep, thoughtful guy Tessa fell madly in love with despite his angry exterior, or has he been a stranger all along? For kits, see the Equipment Lending Library. CIBT labs contain two sections. The first is a teacher section with extensive background information, suggestions for time management of the lab and lists of needed reagents and materials. The following section is for distribution to the students. It contains relevant background and data collection sheets.

Subject brine shrimp cysts to extreme conditions then try to hatch them to see just how tough they are! Students will design and conduct an experiment to test the effect of acid rain on the germination of seeds. They will utilize the data from their experiment to explain their conclusions, and also read a passage on acid rain. In this investigation students will study the types of bacteria that grow during the formation of sauerkraut, identify some characteristics of each, as well as research the type of respiratory pathway used by the organisms to break down the cabbage to get their energy.

Students will plant seeds at various depths in the soil and make observations after seedlings emerge. Based on their observations, students will decide what measurements could be made. They will make these measurements and look for an explanation for differences in their measurements. They will write a hypothesis that describes They will also begin to build a Students can see how the contamination levels increase as the trophic level increases. This lab investigates the physical mechanisms by which our blood vessels function in allowing the circulatory system to do its job. Blood vessels are not simply rigid tubes that conduct blood to our tissues like copper pipes carrying water to our houses, nor are they infinitely extensible balloons that can The objective of this lab is to put together a suitable habitat ecosystem that will allow one or two guppies to survive to the end of the school year and beyond.

Students will make observations of their ecosystems for the three weeks. The ecosystem in this experiment will be closed, This series of four different lab activities all relate to flower reproduction. They have been designed to relate to each other and to stand alone. Name that Pollinator focuses on adaptations for successful pollination. Both pollen and pollen vectors are examined. Observing, data gathering, making measurements through the microscope, and The instructor will dissect an early to mid-pregnant bovine reproductive tract. Some appreciation of the form and function of the various organs should be developed by students. This exercise will also The shape of a protein determines its function. In this lab, students will be given a hypothetical DNA sequence for part of an enzyme.

Students will learn about some of the techniques of forensic science. They will use fingerprinting, chromatography, and chemistry to gather and analyze evidence left behind at a crime scene. The structure and function of enzymes is a central theme in cellular and molecular biology. In this laboratory exercise, a crude cell extract is prepared from potatoes. What can a skull tell you? A lot! If you look at a skull for clues about its origin, not only can you identify what species it might be from, but you can learn many details about the original animal. In this lab, students will determine what clues to analyze in They interpret patterns in the structure of the biological community at each site in light of the abiotic physical and chemical and biotic nature of the environment.

Downloads Comparing Aquatic This lab uses two different sizes of dialysis tubing to represent cellular and organelle membranes. Students design experiments in which they place solutions of iodine, starch, and glucose on different sides of a membrane. The movement of these materials is monitored with the use of indicator solutions. Students are given Students will cut DNA with restriction enzymes. The DNA fragments will be separated electrophoretically on an agarose gel.

The results will simulate a DNA profile. Students can learn how this type of evidence is prepared and interpreted. This activity uses soda, ice cream, sprinkles, colored sugars, and food coloring to represent the layers of Earth and aquifers under the surface. This lab involves the qualitative measurement of the changes in carbon dioxide concentration associated with respiration and photosynthesis in the freshwater plant Elodea. Bromthymol blue is used as an indicator for the presence of CO2 in solution. When CO2 dissolves in water, carbonic acid is formed. A bromthymol blue solution, acidified This exercise introduces the basic methods of phylogenetic analysis. Students are asked to hypothesize the evolutionary relationships of groups of organisms based on traits, and to become familiar with the methods for building evolutionary trees using the basic principles of taxonomy and classification.

Students will measure pictures of developing cow embryos, or use data from the pregnant bovine uterus dissection, to generate size data. Then they will interpret data from graphs to determine age and mass. Students will compare changes of mass during fetal development with changes in size. Finally, students will contrast developmental This lab tangibly demonstrates the abstract concept of photosynthesis to students. Normally, disks punched out of leaves with a hole punch would float.

Examples; Synthesis Essay On Canines, cypress and spruce. In scientific naming, an organism is assigned a specific Equilibrium Lab Report that is unique. The Coyote of Native North America is Creative Writing: My Aunts Thanksgiving Dinner exemplary trickster who plays pranks or disobeys Synthesis Essay On Canines rules with impunity Radin

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