⌚ The Importance Of Expressing Cultural Identity
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Creating Unique Expressions of Cultural Identity - Joel Tracey - TEDxCharlotte
Cultural industries develop either as a state monopoly i. The ownership structure is clearly reflected in the development of cultural industries. Publishing and reading are estimated to be underdeveloped in Nigeria. The first printing outfit was established in Calabar in Newspapers, political and religious literature constituted the bulk of publishing activity in Nigeria for nearly a century. It is estimated that Nigeria now has over publishers and there are about 50 registered member-firms in the Nigerian Publishers Association. They are expected to serve about half a million of Nigerian students and general public. Inconsistent fiscal and education policies in Nigeria and the heavy dependence on government patronage were not in favour of improving rather weak publishing infrastructures.
However, the publishing industry relies mostly on the enormous needs for school books and teaching materials. Over 95 per cent of books used in the primary and junior secondary schools are locally printed and written, edited and illustrated by the Nigerians. Nigerian publishers are now going into the senior secondary school sector and into the technical, professional and tertiary sectors of textbook production. The estimates made in the mid-eighties showed that a minimum of million textbooks per annum at all levels of education would be needed. The main problems encountered by the publishing industry are the following: printing equipment is rather obsolete and scarce; there are constant shortages of paper; the publishing personnel is not always well trained.
The linguistic problem is also important, as most indigenous languages do not have developed orthographies. The inconsistent educational policies, unreliable authorities supposed to support some publishers, piracy and poor promotion and distribution are also mentioned as problems. Large internal markets and ever greater needs linked to the fast spreading education and reading culture support strongly the development of publishing industry. Technical and technological reasons should be added as these enabled a very fast proliferation of radio and TV stations in Nigeria during the last about thirty years.
The development of television broadcasting reflected the regional versus federal politics and aspirations. Each of the 21 Nigerian states opted for its own radio and TV station, as well as for university, colleges, hospitals, etc. Nigeria has the fourth largest TV network in the world, with the constantly growing staff and the figure of imported programmes going constantly down. There is an ever increased choice of TV channels, and the oil revenues helped to increase the number of TV sets.
In the mid-seventies about 87 per cent of population had access to TV programmes. Educational television began broadcasting to schools in and soon became a very important input in development of TV. The merits of TV for the development of education in Nigeria are also enormous both in the processes of formal and informal education. There were efforts to coordinate the growth of TV. However, in the Constitution gave the Nigerian president the mandate to allow state governments, organizations and individuals to establish and operate TV stations. In the military government nationalized all TV stations and established a state monopoly over television broadcasting.
Proliferation of TV and radio stations proved to be a very powerful means for the emancipation of ethnic cultures and values. Film production seems to be the least developed among the Nigerian mass communications industries. The local production of films is not encouraged neither financially nor through some cultural policy. The poor distribution networks operated mostly by strangers and dependent on Indian and American production do not support the production of domestic films.
The state censorship also prevents production and distribution of domestic films. Some authors claim that the restructuring of the film industry through the nationalization of film production and distribution would be welcome. The need to set up laboratories and train professionals is also emphasized. Neither in the sphere of economics, nor in the sphere of politics, Nigerian authorities and Nigerian intellectuals have never denied culture a very important role.
The need to integrate cultural activities and values in all spheres of life has been very loudly pronounced in the post-independence development of Nigeria. General ideas on Nigerian development were linked to the authentic cultural values. However, the clash between modernization westernization on one, and the traditional cultural values on the other side could not have been avoided.
The traditional cultures have been more or less left to the local initiatives. In the context of rather radical developmental changes, they have generated different types of pop-cultures: pop-music based on the strong authentic traditions; pop-literature market literature produced for the barely literate audience and expressing the general popular concerns; performing arts and groups inheriting the status of traditional performers like for instance popular theater performances by more then Yoruba professional popular ambulant groups , etc. Cultural industries and new technologies have very much influenced such developments by enabling fast communication and creation of internal music, literature, etc. The most important issue of cultural development is certainly the issue of creation of either national Nigerian, or affirmation of ethnic cultural identity.
This is also an important political issue, as the Nigerian federalism tried to put together the achievements of the modern democratic West European state and the local cultural traditions. The whole process of restructuration and adjustment is in fact the process of defining the identity of Nigerian peoples and individuals. Development of education, establishment and growth of cultural institutions and cultural industries all reflect the constant processes of change in Nigerian life and Nigerian cultures.
It is impossible to quantify these processes, but it is evident even now that the cultural growth is reflected in the new type of Nigerian culture and identity. It is not based on the merging of different cultural traditions, but it implies a certain selection of values that would define a modern cultural identity of Nigeria. Part of what makes us human is our ability to feel our feelings and process our emotions. When we avoid those emotions, it can lead to a number of consequences, including mental health disorders. Suppressing emotions can lead to depression and anxiety, but for men especially, it can also increase their risk of suicide.
Men are much more likely to commit suicide than women. In , men died by suicide about 3. Over time, men get really good at turning off their emotions or coping with their feelings in a way that is more acceptable for males. The solution to this issue is for men to learn how to become vulnerable and allow themselves to express their emotions freely. However, this is often easier said than done. Here are some ways that men can start becoming more vulnerable to their emotions. So often, men will feel a glimmer of sadness or grief and quickly shut it down. In order to open up about your emotions, you need to accept them and feel them.
Allow yourself to express those emotions however it feels right. Finding hobbies that allow yourself to reflect on your feelings is a great way to tap into your emotions. One man who suffered from lifelong depression and anxiety realized that walking his dog always helped him feel better. Other examples of therapeutic activities are cooking, exercising, art, and music. Men are less likely to see a therapist than women. Part of that is due to the negative stigma around men and mental health. However, seeing a therapist is one of the best ways that men can learn to open up about their feelings.
This tends to allow people to share a way of life that generally links individuals in a certain culture that is identified by the people of that group. The affluence of communication that comes along with sharing a language promotes connections and roots to ancestors and cultural histories. Language also includes the way people speak with peers, family members, authority figures, and strangers, including the tone and familiarity that is included in the language. Language learning process can also be affected by cultural identity via the understanding of specific words, and the preference for specific words when learning and using a second language.
Since many aspects of a person's cultural identity can be changed, such as citizenship or influence from outside cultures can change cultural traditions, language is a main component of cultural identity. During March , the two authors Linda D. Labbo and Sherry L. Field, collected several useful books and resources to promote multicultural education in South Africa. Identity development among immigrant groups has been studied across a multi-dimensional view of acculturation. Dina Birman and Edison Trickett conducted a qualitative study through informal interviews with first-generation Soviet Jewish refugee adolescents looking at the process of acculturation through three different dimensions: language competence, behavioral acculturation, and cultural identity.
In a similar study, Phinney, Horencyzk, Liebkind, and Vedder focused on a model, which concentrates on the interaction between immigrant characteristics and the responses of the majority society to understand the psychological effects of immigration. The researchers concluded that most studies find that being bicultural, the combination of a strong ethnic and a strong national identity, yields the best adaptation in the new country of residence. An article by LaFromboise, L. Colemna, and Gerton, reviews the literature on the impact of being bicultural.
LaFromboise Et Al. Educators can assume their positions of power in beneficially impactful ways for immigrant students, by providing them with access to their native cultural support groups, classes, afterschool activities, and clubs in order to help them feel more connected to both native and national cultures. Biculturalism can allow for a healthy adaptation to life and school. With many new immigrant youth, a school district in Alberta, Canada, has gone as far as to partner with various agencies and professionals in an effort to aid the cultural adjustment of new Filipino immigrant youths.
John W. Comparing three groups of 16 school districts, the loss was greater where the transition was from sixth grade than from a K-8 system. It was also greater when students from multiple elementary schools merged into a single middle school. Students from both K-8 and middle schools lost achievement in transition to high school, though this was greater for middle school students, and high school dropout rates were higher for districts with grades middle schools than for those with K-8 elementary schools.
The Jean S. Phinney Three-Stage Model of Ethnic Identity Development is a widely accepted view of the formation of cultural identity. In this model cultural Identity is often developed through a three-stage process: unexamined cultural identity, cultural identity search, and cultural identity achievement. Unexamined cultural identity: "a stage where one's cultural characteristics are taken for granted, and consequently there is little interest in exploring cultural issues.
Usually a person in this stage accepts the ideas they find on culture from their parents, the media, community, and others. An example of thought in this stage: "I don't have a culture I'm just an American. I've never lived there. Cultural identity search: "is the process of exploration and questioning about one's culture in order to learn more about it and to understand the implications of membership in that culture. For some this stage may arise from a turning point in their life or from a growing awareness of other cultures.
This stage is characterized by growing awareness in social and political forums and a desire to learn more about culture. This can be expressed by asking family members questions about heritage, visiting museums, reading of relevant cultural sources, enrolling in school courses, or attendance at cultural events. This stage might have an emotional component as well.
An example of thought in this stage: "I want to know what we do and how our culture is different from others. Cultural identity achievement: "is characterized by a clear, confident acceptance of oneself and an internalization of one's cultural identity. This usually leads to an increase in self-confidence and positive psychological adjustment . There is a set of phenomena that occur in conjunction between virtual culture — understood as the modes and norms of behavior associated with the internet and the online world — and youth culture.
While we can speak of a duality between the virtual online and real sphere face-to-face relations , for youth, this frontier is implicit and permeable. On occasions — to the annoyance of parents and teachers — these spheres are even superposed, meaning that young people may be in the real world without ceasing to be connected. In the present techno-cultural context, the relationship between the real world and the virtual world cannot be understood as a link between two independent and separate worlds, possibly coinciding at a point, but as a Moebius strip where there exists no inside and outside and where it is impossible to identify limits between both. For new generations, to an ever-greater extent, digital life merges with their home life as yet another element of nature.
In this naturalizing of digital life, the learning processes from that environment are frequently mentioned not just since they are explicitly asked but because the subject of the internet comes up spontaneously among those polled. The internet is becoming an extension of the expressive dimension of the youth condition. There, youth talk about their lives and concerns, design the content that they make available to others and assess others' reactions to it in the form of optimized and electronically mediated social approval.
Many of today's youth go through processes of affirmation procedures and is often the case for how youth today grow dependent on peer approval. When connected, youth speak of their daily routines and lives. The connections they feel in more recent times have become much less interactive through personal means compared to past generations.Such stories have a The Importance Of Expressing Cultural Identity low profile in Australia. Consequently, when translated The Importance Of Expressing Cultural Identity English, the poems lose The Importance Of Expressing Cultural Identity emotional aesthetic in Socrates Ideas Revealed In Platos Crito way that often results in them sounding a bit silly. According to Invisible African American Society Greg McClean:. Instead, public health care nurses The Importance Of Expressing Cultural Identity very assertive The Importance Of Expressing Cultural Identity promoting the benefits of breast milk over formula. This category includes reflection and self-image. Bill Of Rights Controversy the altering of the balance may help Australia, governments have an uncanny habit of getting things wrong, or using revenue for their own agendas.