⌚ Animal Domestication
Guns, Germs, and Steel: A short Animal Domestication of Animal Domestication for the last 13, years. Support science journalism. Namespaces Article Talk. Bryan; Satterlee, Daniel G. Animal Domestication les autres Apocalypse Now Analysis, voir Animal Domestication homonymie.
Animal Domestication - Why Some Animals Can't Be Domesticated
Dans De la souillure [ 78 ] , l' anthropologue britannique Mary Douglas propose que le tabou est une « anomalie » ; ainsi le porc, par bien des aspects, est presque humain, mais il n'est pas humain ; c'est presque un ruminant, mais ce n'est pas un ruminant. Coran, V, 3. Et remerciez Dieu, si c'est Lui que vous adorez. Il le nourrit mais il lui en laisse tout le remords. Dans son roman Truismes , Marie Darrieussecq raconte la transformation progressive de la narratrice en truie. Ce dessin me ravit. Liesse, [ ]. Voir aussi Idiotisme animalier. Wikimedia Commons Wikispecies. Espaces de noms Article Discussion.
Sus domesticus. Sus domesticus Erxleben , Votre aide est la bienvenue! Comment faire? Groves, : The naming of wild animal species and their domestic derivatives. Journal of Archaeological Science, n o 31, pp. Giuffra , J. Kijas , V. These monsters are the lowest form of garbage. Jaime Perez. I definately agree with your comment. I hope when they die it will be slow and painful and when they stay dead on hell on earth hope they will be all alone and to be reminded what they done to these cute animals.
All animal abuers are weak bullies and think they are tough to harm animals but can not handle 2 legged humans ones. Your email address will not be published. Your Website. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Username or Email Address. Remember Me. Sign the Petition. Upgrade to sign 's of petitions with one-click and feed shelter animals. Yes No. This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. Charles Darwin recognized the small number of traits that made domestic species different from their wild ancestors. He was also the first to recognize the difference between conscious selective breeding in which humans directly select for desirable traits, and unconscious selection where traits evolve as a by-product of natural selection or from selection on other traits.
There is also such a difference between the domestication traits that researchers believe to have been essential at the early stages of domestication, and the improvement traits that have appeared since the split between wild and domestic populations. The dog was the first domesticated species ,    and was established across Eurasia before the end of the Late Pleistocene era, well before cultivation and before the domestication of other animals. Birds are also widely kept as cagebirds , from songbirds to parrots.
The longest established invertebrate domesticates are the honey bee and the silkworm. Land snails are raised for food, while species from several phyla are kept for research, and others are bred for biological control. The domestication of plants began at least 12, years ago with cereals in the Middle East , and the bottle gourd in Asia. Agriculture developed in at least 11 different centres around the world, domesticating different crops and animals. Domestication, from the Latin domesticus , 'belonging to the house',  is "a sustained multi-generational, mutualistic relationship in which one organism assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another organism in order to secure a more predictable supply of a resource of interest, and through which the partner organism gains advantage over individuals that remain outside this relationship, thereby benefitting and often increasing the fitness of both the domesticator and the target domesticate.
All past definitions of domestication have included a relationship between humans with plants and animals, but their differences lay in who was considered as the lead partner in the relationship. This new definition recognizes a mutualistic relationship in which both partners gain benefits. Domestication has vastly enhanced the reproductive output of crop plants, livestock, and pets far beyond that of their wild progenitors. Domesticates have provided humans with resources that they could more predictably and securely control, move, and redistribute, which has been the advantage that had fueled a population explosion of the agro-pastoralists and their spread to all corners of the planet.
Houseplants and ornamentals are plants domesticated primarily for aesthetic enjoyment in and around the home, while those domesticated for large-scale food production are called crops. Domesticated plants deliberately altered or selected for special desirable characteristics are cultigens. Animals domesticated for home companionship are called pets , while those domesticated for food or work are known as livestock.
This biological mutualism is not restricted to humans with domestic crops and livestock but is well-documented in nonhuman species, especially among a number of social insect domesticators and their plant and animal domesticates, for example the ant—fungus mutualism that exists between leafcutter ants and certain fungi. Domestication syndrome is the suite of phenotypic traits arising during domestication that distinguish crops from their wild ancestors. The domestication of animals and plants was triggered by the climatic and environmental changes that occurred after the peak of the Last Glacial Maximum around 21, years ago and which continue to this present day.
These changes made obtaining food difficult. The first domesticate was the wolf Canis lupus at least 15, years ago. The Younger Dryas that occurred 12, years ago was a period of intense cold and aridity that put pressure on humans to intensify their foraging strategies. By the beginning of the Holocene from 11, years ago, favorable climatic conditions and increasing human populations led to small-scale animal and plant domestication, which allowed humans to augment the food that they were obtaining through hunter-gathering.
The Neolithic transition led to agricultural societies emerging in locations across Eurasia, North Africa, and South and Central America. In the Fertile Crescent 10,, years ago, zooarchaeology indicates that goats, pigs, sheep, and taurine cattle were the first livestock to be domesticated. Two thousand years later, humped zebu cattle were domesticated in what is today Baluchistan in Pakistan.
In East Asia 8, years ago, pigs were domesticated from wild boar that were genetically different from those found in the Fertile Crescent. The horse was domesticated on the Central Asian steppe 5, years ago. Both the chicken in Southeast Asia and the cat in Egypt were domesticated 4, years ago. The sudden appearance of the domestic dog Canis lupus familiaris in the archaeological record then led to a rapid shift in the evolution , ecology , and demography of both humans and numerous species of animals and plants.
The domestication of animals is the mutual relationship between animals with the humans who have influence on their care and reproduction. There is a genetic difference between domestic and wild populations. Domestication of animals should not be confused with taming. Taming is the conditioned behavioral modification of an individual animal, to reduce its natural avoidance of humans, and to tolerate the presence of humans. Domestication is the permanent genetic modification of a bred lineage that leads to an inherited predisposition to respond calmly to human presence. The beginnings of animal domestication involved a protracted coevolutionary process with multiple stages along different pathways.
The dog was the first domesticant,   and was established across Eurasia before the end of the Late Pleistocene era, well before cultivation and before the domestication of other animals. In both of those cases, humans became entangled with these species as the relationship between them intensified, and humans' role in their survival and reproduction led gradually to formalised animal husbandry. Unlike other domestic species which were primarily selected for production-related traits, dogs were initially selected for their behaviors. The same process may also apply to other domesticated animals.
Domesticated birds principally mean poultry , raised for meat and eggs:  some Galliformes chicken , turkey , guineafowl and Anseriformes waterfowl: duck , goose , swan. Also widely domesticated are cagebirds such as songbirds and parrots ; these are kept both for pleasure and for use in research. The chicken's wild ancestor is Gallus gallus , the red junglefowl of Southeast Asia. It appears to have been kept initially for cockfighting rather than for food. Two insects , the silkworm and the western honey bee , have been domesticated for over 5, years, often for commercial use. The silkworm is raised for the silk threads wound around its pupal cocoon; the western honey bee, for honey , and, lately, for pollination of crops. Several other invertebrates have been domesticated, both terrestrial and aquatic, including some such as Drosophila melanogaster fruit flies and the freshwater cnidarian Hydra for research into genetics and physiology.
Few have a long history of domestication. Most are used for food or other products such as shellac and cochineal. The phyla involved are Cnidaria , Platyhelminthes for biological control , Annelida , Mollusca , Arthropoda marine crustaceans as well as insects and spiders , and Echinodermata. While many marine molluscs are used for food, only a few have been domesticated, including squid , cuttlefish and octopus , all used in research on behaviour and neurology. Terrestrial snails in the genera Helix and Murex are raised for food.
Several parasitic or parasitoidal insects including the fly Eucelatoria , the beetle Chrysolina , and the wasp Aphytis are raised for biological control. Conscious or unconscious artificial selection has many effects on species under domestication; variability can readily be lost by inbreeding, selection against undesired traits, or genetic drift, while in Drosophila , variability in eclosion time when adults emerge has increased.
The initial domestication of animals impacted most on the genes that controlled their behavior, but the initial domestication of plants impacted most on the genes that controlled their morphology seed size, plant architecture, dispersal mechanisms and their physiology timing of germination or ripening. The domestication of wheat provides an example. Wild wheat shatters and falls to the ground to reseed itself when ripe, but domesticated wheat stays on the stem for easier harvesting. This change was possible because of a random mutation in the wild populations at the beginning of wheat's cultivation. Wheat with this mutation was harvested more frequently and became the seed for the next crop. Therefore, without realizing, early farmers selected for this mutation.
The result is domesticated wheat, which relies on farmers for its reproduction and dissemination. The earliest human attempts at plant domestication occurred in the Middle East. There is early evidence for conscious cultivation and trait selection of plants by pre-Neolithic groups in Syria: grains of rye with domestic traits dated 13, years ago have been recovered from Abu Hureyra in Syria ,  but this appears to be a localised phenomenon resulting from cultivation of stands of wild rye, rather than a definitive step towards domestication.
The bottle gourd Lagenaria siceraria plant, used as a container before the advent of ceramic technology, appears to have been domesticated 10, years ago. The domesticated bottle gourd reached the Americas from Asia by 8, years ago, most likely due to the migration of peoples from Asia to America. Cereal crops were first domesticated around 11, years ago in the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East.
The first domesticated crops were generally annuals with large seeds or fruits. These included pulses such as peas and grains such as wheat. The Middle East was especially suited to these species; the dry-summer climate was conducive to the evolution of large-seeded annual plants, and the variety of elevations led to a great variety of species. As domestication took place humans began to move from a hunter-gatherer society to a settled agricultural society. This change would eventually lead, some to years later, to the first city states and eventually the rise of civilization itself.
Continued domestication was gradual, a process of intermittent trial and error, and often resulted in diverging traits and characteristics. Some plants, such as the macadamia nut and the pecan , were not domesticated until recently. In other parts of the world very different species were domesticated. In the Americas squash , maize , beans , and perhaps manioc also known as cassava formed the core of the diet. In East Asia millet , rice , and soy were the most important crops. Some areas of the world such as Southern Africa , Australia , California and southern South America never saw local species domesticated.
There are many challenges facing modern farmers, including climate change, pests, soil salinity, drought, and periods with limited sunlight. Drought is one of the most serious challenges facing farmers today. With shifting climates comes shifting weather patterns, meaning that regions that could traditionally rely on a substantial amount of precipitation were, quite literally, left out to dry. In light of these conditions, drought resistance in major crop plants has become a clear priority.
Next, transferring these advantages to otherwise vulnerable crop plants. Rice, which is one of the most vulnerable crops in terms of drought, has been successfully improved by the addition of the Barley hva1 gene into the genome using transgenetics. Drought resistance can also be improved through changes in a plant's root system architecture,  such as a root orientation that maximizes water retention and nutrient uptake. There must be a continued focus on the efficient usage of available water on a planet that is expected to have a population in excess of nine-billion people byAnimal Domestication domesticus. Annual Review Animal Domestication Animal Biosciences. Animal Domestication Satterlee, Daniel G. Taurine Cattle. Animal Domestication gourd.