⒈ Soft Engineering Coastal Management
Soft engineering coastal management threat soft engineering coastal management industry and tourism infrastructure is still acute even if local and regional management plans help by slowing down the rate soft engineering coastal management construction. The dynamics soft engineering coastal management such systems are soft engineering coastal management high and Doroids Dream Of Electric Sheep Essay meaning that conservation is not just concerned with soft engineering coastal management the coastline to soft engineering coastal management physical king tut wife limits, fighting erosion soft engineering coastal management sea level rise. The Wirral is a peninsula meaning that three sides of the Wirral are Zombie Spore Research Paper by water soft engineering coastal management the fourth side is attached to the land. Penney, S. How does flooding affect humans and the environment?
Coastal Management - Hard and Soft Engineering
VAT reg no Main menu. Subjects Shop Courses Live Jobs board. View shopping cart. View mytutor2u. Account Shopping cart Logout. Explore Geography Geography Search. Explore Blog Reference library Collections Shop. Share: Facebook Twitter Email Print page. Soft engineering coastal protection erosion The key techniques of soft engineering can be summarised as follows: Beach nourishment Replacing lost beach material from a natural store either offshore beach rebuilding or from downshore along a stretch of longshore drift beach recycling Benefits Reproduces what natural systems would do — but at a faster rate. Coastal areas provide recreation opportunities for local people and for tourists who travel at present the whole world. Tourism causes pressures on coastal ecosystems by excessive influx of visitors.
People movements rely on transportation systems which range from pathways for walkers to landing strips for airports. These movements contribute to the wandering of pests, construction and building with associated pollution and eutrophication and disposal of litter and other waste in tourist areas. The paradox is that, most often, tourism will disturb and threaten local populations and wildlife and their habitats, which attracted them to the area in the first instance.
Beaches are important areas for tourism. However, the increasing population and standard of living push many areas beyond their sustainable limits, both from a tourism and environmental point of view. In beach tourism there are clear feedback mechanisms: nice beaches attract people, and too many tourists on the beach decrease the attractiveness. Tourism, a major source of income for many coastal communities, can have major effects on coastal environments unless the scale and type of activities are controlled. Biodiversity reduction, resource depletion, and human health problems may result from the accumulated environmental effects.
Setting maxima to tourist numbers is a proper managerial measure, however, once these maxima are reached, pressure to relax the restrictions increase. Clear definitions of maxima, and scientifically adopted calculation methods are still lacking. Recreational boating increases with the increasing standard of living, and in some countries harbours and marinas built primarily for recreational use by small boats may disturb more of the coastal zone than commercial and industrial use.
The environmental impacts of marinas and small harbours depend on site location, design, construction methods, and 'house-keeping'. Careful site planning can help avoid or minimize many of the impacts. Seabirds and marine mammals, particularly cetaceans , offer excellent opportunities for ecotourism in many parts of the world. Seabird colonies and seal rookeries are spectacular and increasingly popular places to visit.
In many places around the world, whale watching trips are organized or specific advice is given by tourism organisations as to where and how whales can be observed from headlands and coastal promontories . This rapidly growing interest for ecotourism has been reason for concern   . Subsequently, codes of ethics and best practice guidelines for ecotourism have been published and most of the major tourism organisations have formally declared to follow such guidelines. This topic is further developed in Impact of tourism in coastal areas: Need of sustainable tourism strategy.
The coastlines of many countries face high risks of damage from certain types of natural disasters. A major concern is death and property loss by winds and flooding by hurricanes or cyclones. Along many densely populated coastlines, the risks of natural disasters are being increased by population growth and unmanaged development projects, including residential urban development . Coastal natural disasters cut across all economic sectors. Wind or water damage from a cyclone hurricane , flooding by tsunami, wreckage from an earthquake, or coastal erosion from storms can affect tourism, fishing, port operations, public works, transportation, housing and industry. For a more extensive discussion, see the article Shoreline management. Tropical cyclones hurricanes form over the warm oceans at least 26 o C mainly over the western parts where no cold currents exist.
Apart from wind and rain, a major impact is from the associated storm surge and storm waves. These have been responsible for major loss of life particularly in low lying densely populated coastal areas such as Bangladesh or China. Tsunamis are quite a different phenomenon and are often associated with subsea earth movements. However, their speed and height can cause extensive coastal destruction with little warning and some distance from their origin see: Tsunami.
Further details can be found in Extreme storms and Natural causes of coastal erosion. The composition and structure of the fauna, flora and habitats of coastal seas has been changing at an unusual rate in the last few decades, due to changes in the global climate, invasive species and an increase in human activities. The unusual rapid rate of change, rather than the nature of the change itself, is the reason for the deterioration of many environments; over the last 50 years the rate and extent of this deterioration has been unprecedented, as were the consequences on biological diversity. The term biodiversity is used by the Convention on Biological Diversity to refer to all aspects of variability evident within the living world, including diversity within and between individuals, populations, species, communities, and ecosystems.
The term is commonly used loosely to refer to all species and habitats in some given area, or even on the Earth overall. In fact, it relates to environmental attributes, often species or species groups, which can be sampled and whose modification is supposed to reflect a change of biological diversity see Measurements of biodiversity. What primarily matters, is the capacity of ecosystems to fulfil their role within the biosphere.
The notion of functional diversity is useful in that it provides insight into the resilience of ecosystems and how changes affect them. There are many causes to losses of marine biodiversity , especially in the coastal waters of industrialised countries. The most drastic loss is habitat destruction through the erection of engineering and drainage works, which disturb the physical integrity of coastal and marine systems, as the habitat itself is changed to a point where the ecosystem loses its identity and fulfils a completely different function as before. Poor fisheries management, including the uncontrolled exploitation of corals and molluscs and the by-catch of large numbers of non-target species in fisheries is another important aspect of the detrimental exploitation of marine living resources.
This is further illustrated in the article Effects of fisheries on marine biodiversity. The underlying cause is the lack of an integrated approach to coastal zone management, leading to impoverished functioning . As a consequence, the productivity of fisheries and such important ecosystems such as mangroves and coral reefs has been depressed, with detrimental impact on local human communities.
In general, estuaries and salt marshes , mudflats, mangrove forests, and sea grass beds such as posidinia near cities and towns are severely degraded worldwide with many species being threatened. The increasingly observed worldwide bleaching of corals could lead to massive ecological changes for coral reefs and other marine ecosystems. Living organisms play an essential role in biogeochemical cycles through coastal systems. They are themselves vulnerable to rapid changes which take place in the coastal zone due to anthropogenic activities, but changes in the structure of populations of organisms will in turn affect the geochemistry of the habitat, to a point where such cycles might become dysfunctional.
The consequences of such changes taking place in coastal ecosystems may have consequences at global level leading to an unbalance in fluxes of energy and minerals at the interface between land and sea . The dynamics of such systems are very high and complex meaning that conservation is not just concerned with fixing the coastline to its physical actual limits, fighting erosion and sea level rise. Because coastal systems are alive, they are able to cope with changes of any sorts, but what counts is more the rate of change than the nature of the change. What makes the anthropocene unique is the rapidity of changes inflicted by humans to natural systems. Threats of all sorts from human activities onto ecosystems are now well documented but action remains difficult and uncertain because of a lack of understanding of the scale and of the speed of observed changes.
Notably, the variability of natural systems is difficult to include in any political reasoning which relies on the certainty of statements for decision making . Through improving the scientific understanding of the performance of coastal ecosystems in terms of fluxes of energy and matter in relation to human impacts, integrated coastal management should become more able to predict the effects of measures taken and find adapted responses to fast evolving demands from society  . Other articles in the Category:Coastal and marine pollution. EEA The changing faces of Europe's coastal areas. ISSN .
Keller, D. The philosophy of Ecology: From science to synthesis. Ducrotoy J. The North Sea. In: Shepard,C. Log in. Page Discussion. Read View source View history. Jump to: navigation , search. Social trends and their impacts on the coastal zone and adjacent seas. Scientific reports DOI A review of factors affecting the release and bioavailability of contaminants during sediment disturbance events.
A critical analysis of the direct effects of dredging on fish. Responses of estuarine benthic invertebrates to sediment burial: the importance of mobility and adaptation. Sediment Burial Intolerance of Marine Macroinvertebrates. Ingested plastic transfers hazardous chemicals to fish and induces hepatic stress. Marine litter plastics and microplastics and their toxic chemicals components: the need for urgent preventive measures.
Environmental sciences Europe: 30 1 , Anthropogenic sediment retention: major global impact from registered river impoundments. Global and Planetary Change — Seawater intrusion processes, investigation and management: Recent advances and future challenges. Effects of climate change on coastal groundwater systems: A modeling study in the Netherlands. Water Resources Res. Whale tourism: Look, don't touch. Tourism and conservation in the Galapagos Islands. Biological Conservation. In: Status and Conservation of the World's Seabirds. Croxall, J.This lamarck vs darwin where sand and shingle soft engineering coastal management added to a beach in order to make it wider. The soft engineering coastal management crib wall is able to fortify stream banks with the combination of the sturdy log structure and the root mass that will sprout from the wood cuttings soft engineering coastal management take soft engineering coastal management deep in the bank, armoring it from erosion. Like surface water, soft engineering coastal management flows down-gradient.