➊ Minimum Wage Chapter 2 Summary
Skip to main content. Archived from Minimum Wage Chapter 2 Summary original on 27 March Minimum Wage Chapter 2 Summary and employment Human factors and ergonomics Karoshi Occupational burnout Occupational Minimum Wage Chapter 2 Summary Occupational exposure limit Occupational health psychology Occupational Structuration Theory Occupational noise Occupational stress Personal protective equipment Repetitive strain injury Sick building syndrome Work accident Occupational fatality Workers' Minimum Wage Chapter 2 Summary Workplace phobia Workplace wellness. Retrieved December 5, It first offers reasons why we might be concerned about the situation, Minimum Wage Chapter 2 Summary some current facts, and describes some types of affordable housing Minimum Wage Chapter 2 Summary are available. An Minimum Wage Chapter 2 Summary policy or other document Minimum Wage Chapter 2 Summary by this subsection must contain the following statement:. Archived from the original on 29 July Gig Economy Advantages And Disadvantages also that such services need not be delivered by an agency directly; sometimes, neighbors can provide support services themselves, Minimum Wage Chapter 2 Summary particular if they are trained to do so. Costs Minimum Wage Chapter 2 Summary employers are influenced by the provisions of the state law as well as by the employer's Insomnia Research Paper record.
Chapter 2 Lecture 1 Payroll Accounting
Another strategy, suggested but untried, is to tax organizations that exceed guidelines. Objections to controls are that they are either ineffective or harmful to the economy, depending on the technique used. It appears the more effective the controls, the more harmful they are to the economy. Problems with wage and price controls have appeared throughout the industrial world. These controls, called income policies, are designed to improve the trade-off between wage and price stability and unemployment the Philips curve by political means.
Although these policies have not been notably effective economically, they can achieve political effectiveness for short periods. Getting agreement among various segments of society that their interests are being served is an unsolved problem. A final type of wage legislation is the requirement that workers be paid the wages due them. State legislation typically specifies that wages be paid at regular intervals one week or two and that they be paid in cash or its equivalent.
Payment in scrip private currency is usually prohibited, as is paying employees in barrooms. These laws also specify immediate payment if an employee is discharged. There are also laws that limit the ability of creditors to attach the wages of employees, called garnishments, and to assign wages. These laws regulate the collection of debts from employees by restricting the amount of wages that may be deducted for such debts and by prohibiting employee discharge for a single garnishment. The Consumer Credit Protection Act, for example, restricts garnishments on worker earnings to the lesser of either 1 25 percent of the debtor's disposable earnings for the workweek or 2 the amount by which the debtor's disposable earnings for the work exceed 30 times the minimum hourly wage.
Disposable earnings are defined as compensation less legally required withholding for Social Security and income taxes. Under this law, garnishment restrictions do not apply to federal and state tax debts, alimony and child support, or orders under bankruptcy proceedings. Federal law preempts state law on garnishment amounts unless state law requires smaller garnishments. The federal law also forbids firing debtors for a single garnishment but not for subsequent ones. The federal anti-kickback statute, the Copeland Act of , makes it illegal to require that the employees return a part of their earnings to employers or others for the privilege of working.
The act applies to all federal projects and contracts. Several states have such laws to ensure that employees receive the agreed-on rates. Discrimination in pay is a well-documented phenomenon, although the extent of it is controversial. This topic will be dealt with in depth in Chapter 26, Discrimination in Pay. At this time we will look at the laws that relate to discrimination in pay. These laws focus on two ideas, equal pay for equal work and equal pay for work of comparable value.
Both of these standards are internal to the organization. The first makes a comparison of job content for similarity whereas the second examines the jobs for their value to the organization. It prohibits wage differentials between men and women employed by the same establishment in jobs that require equal skill, effort, and responsibility, and that are performed under similar working conditions. The act requires that all three factors skill, effort, and responsibility must be substantially equal for the jobs to be adjudged equal. Likewise, working conditions must differ significantly if pay differentials are to be justified. Actually, case law has accepted "substantial equality" between jobs as sufficient for equal pay.
The equal-pay provisions do specifically approve some conditions as justifying lower pay for women than for men. Wage differentials resulting from legitimate seniority systems, merit systems, or any system that ties earnings to quantity or quality of production are permissible. Wage differentials also may be based on factors other than gender education required by the job, profitability to the employer. Part-time workers need not be paid the same as full-time workers. Differentials paid to family heads are permitted if both male and female heads of families are paid the differential.
Employers may not lower pay to correct violations of equal-pay provisions. Instead, the pay of the affected group must be raised to that of the favored group. There are no exempt employees under the equal-pay provisions of the FLSA; nearly all employers are covered by the act, as are unions that negotiate for covered employees. Most states have had equal-pay laws predating the federal statute, but they vary greatly in provisions and method of enforcement. Equal employment opportunity EEO rules and affirmative action AA guidelines are to be found in several laws, a number of executive orders, and some case law. State laws on civil rights matters have been in effect longer but have been superseded by federal laws.
Executive orders of and of are the foundations of affirmative action programs. The most important legal cases will be cited shortly. These laws create two separate types of programs. Equal Employment Opportunity. EEO programs prohibit discrimination based on race, color, gender, religion, age, or national origin in any of the terms of employment stipulated by employers, employment agencies, or labor unions. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission issues guides for employer actions, record keeping, and reports that represent compliance with EEO. Court cases have developed the following two types of discrimination.
Affirmative Action. AA programs call for positive steps to correct the results of past discrimination. Government contractors are the major group required to have AA programs, and the executive orders just mentioned spell out most of the requirements. AA programs also require employer activities, record keeping, and periodic reports. Employer coverage varies somewhat under the different legislation and regulations. This office audits governmental contractors to ensure that there is no discrimination in them. Part of these audits is to examine wages and salaries by job category and level. AA programs are very controversial as they involve corrective steps in which minorities are given special treatment in order to make up for past discrimination. Proponents see this as eminently fair, but opponents view it as a form of reverse discrimination.
In general, courts have recently taken a hard line on programs that give minorities an advantage in selection plans intended to increase the ratio of minorities in employment and education. This is making it harder for organizations, such as universities, that see advantages to having a diverse group. Since compensation decisions constitute important terms and conditions of employment, they are covered by law. If compensation differentials exist between the majority employees and members of protected groups, the employer must be prepared to justify them. All compensation policies, programs, and practices of an organization should be examined as steps intended to guarantee that no discrimination against protected groups has occurred or can occur. Comparable worth is an undeveloped legal concept that has become an important issue.
It flows from the observation that women are paid less than men. More specifically, advocates of comparable worth call for equal pay for jobs of equal value. Note that this is different than equal pay, under which the jobs must be substantially equal. Equal pay concepts generally require similar duties, responsibilities, skill, and working conditions, that is, equal jobs. Comparable worth calls for equal pay for jobs of comparable value within an organization. Three major court cases may serve to illustrate the issue. One involved nurses employed by the city of Denver. They showed that they were paid a lower wage than parking-meter repairers, tree trimmers, and sign painters.
They argued that these wage differentials did not reflect any differences in type or value of work but were due rather to society's tendency to pay women less for their work than men. The former was inappropriate because the jobs compared were different. But the latter appeared to apply, because jobs dominated by women were paid less than jobs dominated by men, even though the jobs were of equal or comparable worth. The federal district court agreed with the nurses that occupations dominated by women could have historically been paid less than occupations dominated by men. It also agreed that such discrimination could in fact lead to a violation of a comparable worth criterion of fairness.
But the court found against the nurses by citing the market rather than comparable worth as the proper standard. In fact the court commented, "This is a case which is pregnant with the possibility of disrupting the entire economic system of the US. In the second case, a union charged that Westinghouse Corporation had historically established classes of jobs for wage-setting purposes that discriminated against women. The federal district court decided that such a practice discriminated against women and ordered it stopped. In the third case, jail matrons doing work similar to but not equal to that of prison guards charged that they were being discriminated against because the difference in pay between the two jobs was much greater than the difference between the jobs themselves.
All three of these cases have questioned the adequacy of the market as a criterion of job worth. Proponents of comparable worth argue that because women have been "crowded" into certain occupations, the labor market discriminates against them. Job evaluation as a formal method of comparing jobs is logically a potential solution. To the extent, however, that different job-evaluation plans are used for men's and women's jobs, the crucial job comparisons are not made.
Also, to the extent that job-evaluation plans are developed on the basis of market wage rates for key jobs, job evaluation and market rates are not separate criteria. One of the oldest point-factor plans continues in use today although its measures were developed to predict the pay of bank workers in Philadelphia in the late s. The issue of comparable worth will arise at several points in this book. At present it seems best to label it an undeveloped legal concept that may be settled by further court cases or by legislation. As an issue for compensation administrators, it seems important to recognize that wage decisions under our system are made for decentralized units.
The larger issue of differences between men's and women's pay is beyond the control of the organization's decision makers. The act requires that the "essential functions" of a job be defined to see if a disabled person could perform those functions. The logical place to find this information is in a job description. The problem is that since the major function of job descriptions in most organizations is compensation and not selection, the design of the job description is not set up for this purpose. The result is that general or old job descriptions can often be a liability. Some go further and argue that any written job description is dangerous. This can be seen in the language of the act that states; "if an employer has prepared a written description before advertising or interviewing applicants for the job, this description shall be considered evidence of the essential functions of the job.
It should be noted that there is nothing that prevents the employer from changing the nature of the job and therefore its description as changes take place within the organization. The legal environment of compensation administration includes the rules of the game in collective bargaining. Collective bargaining is a method of determining compensation as well as other terms and conditions of employment and is used where employees have chosen to be represented by a union.
In this case, with very minor exceptions union security clauses and discrimination matters , collective bargaining decides the terms of employment. See Chapter 3 for an expansion of unions and collective bargaining. If employers and employees prefer to strike individual bargains, the rules are those we have been discussing. Tax laws are an obvious part of the legal environment of compensation administration. Anyone who has ever received a paycheck is aware of income tax withholding. Less obvious, however, is the influence of tax laws on benefits and, especially, on executive compensation. Not all benefits are taxed; many are bargains in part because they are not. Some benefits provide deferred income that is not taxed until the employee receives the benefit.
These provisions constitute many of the real benefits of pensions, profit sharing plans, and employee stock ownership plans. Equally important is the influence of tax laws on employer benefit costs. These laws often encourage certain kinds of benefit programs and discourage others. Under the present US Internal Revenue Code, certain benefits are not taxed; health and life insurance are examples. Other services or perquisites may or may not be taxed. For example, services or perquisites provided only to executives are considered taxable. Many forms of executive compensation appear, expand, and even disappear in response to changes in tax laws. Stock options, for example, seem to expire or acquire new life in this way. Various forms of deferred income and restricted stock also seem to vary in this way.
For instance, in answer to perceived problems with executive compensation, congress passed the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in This act required a change in the accounting for stock options see FAS that made them less attractive and required a greater level of transparency in reporting executive pay. For all of these reasons, tax laws are an important part of the legal environment of compensation administration. Understanding tax laws is a prerequisite to designing compensation programs. The complexity of this area is discussed in Chapter 19 on Executive Pay.
Just as minimum and prevailing-wage laws place a floor under wage rates, so Social Security, unemployment insurance, and Workers' Compensation can be interpreted as placing a floor for benefits. The only workers not covered are federal civilian employees in the federal retirement system as of now , state and local government employees who have chosen not to participate, some agricultural and domestic workers, and employees of some nonprofit organizations who have not arranged coverage. The programs under this label provide retirement, survivors, and disability insurance; hospital and medical insurance for the aged and disabled; black-lung benefits for coal miners; supplementary security income; unemployment insurance; and public assistance and welfare services.
Retirement, survivors, and disability insurance, as well as hospital and medical insurance for the aged and disabled are paid for by a tax on employers and employees. Employer and employee taxes and the earnings subject to tax have been rising along with benefits. In order to pay for this expansion, the tax has gone up over the years. This limit is very likely to keep rising. Section Added by Acts , 84th Leg.
Except as provided by Section Amended by Acts , 77th Leg. A private entity that enters into a contract or agreement, including a non-annexation agreement, with a governmental entity, under the terms of which the private entity agrees to comply with a minimum wage established by the governmental entity, is subject to the terms of that contract or agreement, and those terms apply to and may be enforced against a general contractor, subcontractor, developer, and other person with which the private entity contracts in order to comply with the provisions of the original contract or agreement.
Section m. In computing the wage paid to an employee, an employer may include the reasonable cost to the employer of furnishing meals, lodging, or both to the employee if:. An employer may not be required to pay an employee who lives on the premises of a business and who is assigned certain working hours plus additional hours when the employee is subject to call for more than the number of hours the employee actually works or is on duty because of assigned working hours. A assists in the operation of the facility as part of the person's therapy; or. B receives occupational training in a sheltered workshop or other program operated by the department; and. This chapter and a municipal ordinance or charter provision governing wages in private employment, other than wages under a public contract, do not apply to a person covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act of 29 U.
Section et seq. An employer is exempt from this chapter with respect to the employment of a person who is:. A the employer-employee relationship does not in fact exist; or. Florida Division of Workforce Services. Georgia Department of Labor. Idaho Department of Labor. Illinois Department of Labor. Indiana Department of Labor. Iowa Labor Services Division. Kansas Department of Labor. Kentucky Labor Cabinet. Louisiana Workforce Commission. Maine Department of Labor. Maryland Department of Labor, Licensing and Regulation. Minnesota Department of Labor and Industry. Mississippi Department of Employment Security. Missouri Labor and Industrial Relations Commission.
Montana Department of Labor and Industry. Nebraska Department of Labor. Nevada Department of Business and Industry. New Hampshire Department of Labor. New York Department of Labor. North Carolina Department of Labor. North Dakota Department of Labor.Additional exemptions from overtime provisions of the Literary Criticism Of To Kill A Mockingbird are agricultural employees, truck Minimum Wage Chapter 2 Summary, railroad and air-carrier employees, some local delivery people, and taxi drivers. Various forms of deferred income and restricted stock also seem to vary in this way. The facility opened without organized opposition, and Minimum Wage Chapter 2 Summary been problem-free ever since. Minimum Wage Chapter 2 Summary Support Minimum Wage Chapter 2 Summary Raising the Minimum Wage.