⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐ Quebec Sovereignty Summary

Thursday, October 28, 2021 12:13:40 PM

Quebec Sovereignty Summary



Naming a Quebec Sovereignty Summary after Analysis Of Maxine Hong Kingstons The Woman Warrior family Quebec Sovereignty Summary e. Quebec Sovereignty Summary the behavior Quebec Sovereignty Summary noticed. Develop creative solutions. Most notably, distinct languages Quebec Sovereignty Summary a shared worldview and J. M.: Negative Stereotypes. Quebec has Quebec Sovereignty Summary large number of Quebec Sovereignty Summary tribunals responsible for seeing to the application of one or more laws. They do so repeatedly.

The Reasons Behind Quebec's Sovereignty Movement

This means that potential employers and others are likely to see what you post about them. Consider the fate of a high school student who tweeted rude remarks about other students while visiting a college she hoped to attend. Adapt to the audience. Short, casual messages have become so common online that people sometimes forget to use different etiquette for professional communication. Consider who will or might read each of your messages. If you have been texting and emailing since you could walk, it might be hard to believe that some people are insulted when you divide your attention between them and your phone.

Keep your cool. Flames are problematic because of their emotional and irreversible nature. But what is it that makes someone an effective communicator? Answering this question has been one of the leading challenges for communication scholars. For one, using a variety of communication styles can be effective. Also, competent behavior varies by situation and from one relationship to another.

With these principles in mind, here are nine implications that arise from research about competent communication in any setting. Some very successful people are serious, whereas others use humor. Some are loud, whereas others are quiet. And some people are straightforward, whereas others prefer subtlety. Just as there are many kinds of beautiful music and art, there are many kinds of competent communication. Consider this real-life example: After two friends, Rafa and James, had a meal together, James thanked Rafa for paying the bill. Communication involves a set of skills that can be learned. Systematic education such as the class in which you are now enrolled and a little training can produce dramatic results.

We learn from our own successes and failures and by seeing what works well, and not so well, for the people around us. Many poor communicators are easy to spot by their limited range of responses. Some are chronic jokers. Others always seem to be argumentative. Still others are quiet in almost every situation. Like a piano player who knows only one tune or a chef who can prepare only a few dishes, these people rely on a small range of responses again and again, whether or not they are successful. By contrast, competent communicators have a wide repertoire from which to draw, and they have the ability to choose the most appropriate behavior for a given situation.

This is why listening is so important. Because listening is such an important element of communicative competence, Chapter 5 is devoted to the topic. Cognitive complexity is the ability to understand issues from a variety of perspectives. For instance, imagine that your longtime friend seems angry with you. Is your friend offended by something you have done? Or did something upsetting happen earlier in the day? Researchers have found that analyzing the behavior of others can lead to greater conversational sensitivity. Psychologists use the term self-monitoring to describe the process of paying close attention to our own behavior and using these observations to shape the way we behave. Used wisely, this is a valuable skill.

High self-monitors are more likely than low self-monitors to develop relationships with many types of people. One feature that distinguishes effective communication in almost any context is commitment. Describe the most skillful communicator you know. What makes this person so effective? How can you adapt that skill to your own repertoire? In what situations are you at your best as a communicator? At your worst? Describe three communication goals you would like to achieve. Answer the questions below for insight about your approach as a communicator. Tune out and hope your friend changes topics soon. Ask questions to be sure you understand what your friend means. You are working franatically to meet a project deadline when your phone rings. What would you probably do?

Pretend to listen while you continue to work on your project. You are assigned to a task force to consider the parking problem on campus. Which of the following are you most likely to do during task force meetings? Talk in a quiet voice to the person next to you. Ask questions and take notes. Spend most of your time listening quietly. What are you most likely to do at the table? Ask for dessert in a takeout container so you can leave early. Give your undivided attention as your brother talks about his big day. Paste a smile on your face and make the best of the situation, even if you feel bored. More than one may apply.

Perhaps you are shy, introverted, or easily distracted. Active listening tips in Chapter 5 may be helpful. Honesty can be a virtue, but be careful not to overdo it. Your willingness to actively engage with people is an asset. Use tips throughout the book to enhance your already-strong communication skills. People probably appreciate your listening skills but wish you would speak up more. Saying what you feel and sharing your ideas can be an asset both personally and professionally. Correcting misconceptions is important because following them can get you into trouble.

Here we set the record straight on how communication actually functions. Myth 1: Communication requires complete understanding. In truth, communication is neither good nor bad in itself. Rather, its value comes from the way it is used. Communication can be a tool for expressing warm feelings and useful facts, but under different circumstances the same words and actions can cause pain.

Most people assume that communication is an aptitude that people develop without the need for training— rather like breathing. Communication skills are a lot like athletic ability: Even the most inept of us can learn to be more effective with training and practice, and those who are talented can always become better. Communication in itself is neither good nor bad.

What matters is how you use it. And there are times when communicating too much can actually aggravate a problem. One key to successful communication, then, is to share an adequate amount of information in a skillful manner. Exploring ways to do that is one of the major goals of this book. Dyadic communication involves two persons interacting, whether or not it is interpersonal. In small group communication, every person can participate actively with the other members. People engage in organizational communication when they collectively work to achieve goals. Public communication occurs when a group is too large for all members to contribute, as when an audience listens to a lecture.

Communication Competence We use communication to achieve goals in a manner that, ideally, maintains or enhances the relationship in which it occurs. Communication can solve all problems. Communication is good. Meanings are in words. Communication is simple. More communication is always better. Imagine a conversation the people pictured above might be having. Explain how the conversation you imagine illustrates the four key elements of communication described on page 2. Based on the linear model, if one person in the picture above is talking, what role are the others playing? How does this differ from a description of their communication based on the transactional model? KEY TERMS: linear communication model, sender encodes, message, receiver, decodes, channel, mediated communication, noise, environments, transactional communication model, feedback 1.

Describe the different ways you might share that news with a close friend, your boss, and your current work group. In what ways would you adapt your message to suit each relationship? KEY TERMS: intrapersonal communication, dyadic communication, small group communication, organizational communication, public communication, mass communication 1. Would you announce that via social media? Why or why not? If so, how would you craft your social media message s to be appropriate for different audiences your friends, your boss, your family, and so on? Which of these are you good at? Which might you improve and how? Which misconceptions about communication page 12 have caused the greatest problems in your life?

How can you approach similar situations more constructively in the future? What are some misconceptions about gender? Empathy and Emotion What is the difference between empathy and sympathy? How can you enhance your emotional intelligence? Identity Management What communication strategies do people use to establish a favorable social identity? When do social media make people feel better or worse about themselves?

Individuals have a sense of what makes them different from other people and how they are alike. These perceptions are based largely on communication with others. Take a few minutes to list as many of your traits and characteristics as you can. Self-Concept The items on your list contribute to your self-concept, a set of relatively stable perceptions each individual holds about themself.

It includes your conception of what is unique about you and what makes you different from others. The self-concept is complex. Even a list of 20 or 30 terms would be only a partial description of the factors that describe you. To be more complete, your list would have to be hundreds—or even thousands—of words long. Of course, not all items would be equally important. Self-Esteem An important element of the self-concept is self-esteem, a personal evaluation of self-worth. People with high self-esteem are more likely than others to take a chance on starting new relationships3 and showing affection to others,4 which can enhance their feelings of self-esteem even more.

One of the most obvious impacts of mass media is the way people evaluate their appearance. In the United States, adolescent boys are likely to feel that they are not as slender or as muscular as society expects them to be,8 and young women frequently exposed to media images are more likely than others to feel that they are overweight and to have eating disorders. In collectivistic cultures, a person builds identity by belonging to a group. If you have ever worked on a group assignment and been graded on how well the team as a whole performed rather than on your individual contributions, you have experienced collectivism to some extent. In collectivist cultures, feelings of pride and self-worth are likely to be shaped by the behavior of other members of the community.

Figure 2. Finally, the responses of others are likely to affect the way you anticipate future events— other job interviews, meetings with professors, and so on. This cycle illustrates the chicken-and-egg nature of communication and the self-concept. If you had to predict how well you will do in the rest of your academic career, what would you say? On the other hand, what behaviors might prevent your prediction from coming true? So far, this chapter has covered the way people perceive themselves and others. In fact, humans are prone to perceptual bias. Some of the biggest problems that interfere with understanding and agreement arise from errors in interpretation, or what psychologists call attribution—the process of attaching meaning to behavior.

Someone else might assume that the same person is a jogger or a construction worker. Individuals attribute meaning both to their own actions and to the actions of others, but they often use different yardsticks. Here we explore four perceptual errors that can lead to inaccurate attributions—and to troublesome communication. Individuals typically judge themselves more charitably than they judge others. In an attempt to convince themselves and others that the positive face they show the world is true, people tend to judge themselves in the most generous terms possible.

Social scientists have labeled this tendency the selfserving bias. Uncharitable attitudes toward others can, of course, affect communication. Your harsh opinions of others can lead you to send judgmental messages. At the same time, you may feel defensive when others interpret your behavior less charitably than you do yourself. Consider a time when you received feedback about your contributions to a team project.

Even if 9 out of 10 comments were positive, the negative one probably hit you hardest and stayed with you longest. Spotting threatening elements in the environment is sometimes more important than focusing on safe ones. Focusing on one unappealing quality, especially in someone you barely know, can lead you to reject them for reasons that might not matter very much in the long run. When someone impresses you favorably in some way, you are likely to assume they have other positive qualities as well—an attribution error that scholars call a halo effect.

And sometimes a halo effect emerges over time. One aspect of the self-concept involves gender. Here are three common misconceptions about gender. Myth 1: Sex and gender are the same. In fact, sex is a biological category e. Indeed, there are obvious advantages to embodying a range of communication styles regardless of your biological sex. Physical attributes and hormone levels make biological sex a more complicated formula than you might think. Conceptualizations of gender have advanced through three main stages over time. That is, people were considered either male or female. The second phase, which gained acceptance near the end of the 20th century,22 acknowledged that people might also be androgynous combining masculine and feminine traits or undifferentiated neither masculine nor feminine.

The third phase, emerging now, has some theorists embracing the idea of a gender matrix that recognizes gender as a multidimensional collection of qualities. People are too complex for simplistic labels. Tiffany Tan has a good friend she describes as unique, creative, and talented. Her friend also has autism. Here are three tips for better understanding yourself and others.

Display empathy. This involves three dimensions. This requires you to set aside your own opinions and suspend judgment of that person. You know their fear, joy, sadness, and so on. Many people equate empathy with sympathy, but the concepts differ in two important ways. For example, when something great happens to your best friend, you might realize that you feel happy but also a little jealous. Conversely, good self-regulators use emotions in positive ways. For example, you might channel your nervousness about public speaking into being more dynamic before an audience. Consider success as a student. This is a crucial factor in developing strong and trusting relationships.

For example, organizations led by people with high EI are usually more successful than others, partly because these leaders are self-aware, they exercise emotional control, and they are good at understanding how employees and customers feel. It can help you understand others accurately instead of jumping to conclusions. Here are the three steps involved. Describe the behavior you noticed. Suggest at least two possible interpretations of the behavior. This step is simple but important. A friend says something that hurts your feelings. What are you most likely to say? Tell me why you feel that way. Say nothing. What are you most likely to do? Take the day off. This feeling is too good to waste at work. Channel your positive energy into being a great team member.

Set your emotions aside and get to work. Ask if anything is bothering him and then listen attentively to what he says. Give him some space. The grade on your research paper is not as high as you had hoped. How are you most likely to respond? Fume about what an idiot the professor is. Post on social media that you are sad and discouraged today. Go over the paper carefully to learn what you might do better next time. This can be an asset in terms of self-expression, but be careful not to let your emotions get the best of you.

Suggestions for perception checking page 22 and self-monitoring page 25 may help you strengthen the empathy and self-regulation components of EI. You score relatively high in terms of EI. Just be careful to pair your self-awareness with active interest in others. You may feel impatient with people who are not as emotionally aware as you are. Stay tuned for listening tips and strategies in Chapter 5. Communication strategies throughout the book provide opportunities to build on your already-strong EI.

The tips for self-disclosure in Chapter 7 may be especially useful to you. All the same, many of the messages people send are meant to create desired impressions. Individuals have public and private selves. In truth, everyone has several selves, some private and others public. Often, these selves are quite different. Your perceived self is the person you believe yourself to be in moments of honest self-examination. You can verify the private nature of the perceived self by reviewing the self-concept list you developed at the start of the chapter. In contrast to the perceived self, the presenting self is a public image—the way you want to appear to others. In most cases, the presenting self you seek to create is a socially approved image: diligent student, loving partner, conscientious worker, and so on.

Social norms often create a gap between the perceived and presenting selves. Sociologist Erving Goffman used the word face to describe the presenting self and the term facework to describe the verbal and nonverbal ways people try to maintain a positive image. Depending on the circumstances, you may behave in ways that suggest to others that you are nice, competent, or artistic, for example. The other is the way that your face goals make others feel.

Identity management is not a solo enterprise. Attaining a particular identity relies on how willing other people are to accept it. For example, women have traditionally been hindered by colleagues who treat them like sex objects or subordinates rather than as dedicated professionals. At other times, however, people are active agents in helping one another save face. If you know the person well, you might point it out so they can avoid further embarrassment. Either way, you are engaged in a cooperative effort to help that person save face, just as you hope others will help you.

In the course of even a single day, you may play a variety of roles: respectful student, joking friend, friendly neighbor, and helpful employee, to suggest just a few. You may even play a variety of roles with the same person. Sometimes—perhaps on birthdays or holidays—you were a dedicated family member, and at other times you may have been antisocial and locked yourself in your room. People exercise the same level of versatility in different situations. One scholar pointed out that bilingual Latinos in the United States often choose whether to use English or Spanish depending on who they are speaking to and the kind of identity they seek in a given conversation. But in other cases, you may act largely out of habit or an unconscious sense of what is appropriate.

Some people are more aware of their identity management behavior than others. By contrast, low self-monitors express what they are thinking and feeling without much attention to the impression their behavior creates. This allows them to handle social situations smoothly, often putting others at ease. This may be due to their highly analytical nature. This means that they are easy to read.

This can make them reliable and honest. By now it should be clear that neither extremely high nor low self-monitoring is ideal. There are some situations in which paying attention to yourself and adapting your behavior can be useful, but sometimes, reacting without considering the effect on others is a better approach. This demonstrates again the notion of communicative competence outlined in Chapter 1: Flexibility is the key to successful communication. Social rules govern your behavior in a variety of settings. It would be impossible to keep a job, for example, without meeting certain expectations.

Salespeople are obliged to treat customers with courtesy, employees must appear reasonably respectful when talking to the boss, and some forms of clothing would be considered outrageous at work. People often manage their identities strategically. Or you might be nice to your neighbors so they will agree to keep their dog off your lawn. After all, you have to send some sort of message. After reading this far, you might think that identity management sounds like an academic label for manipulation or phoniness.

A manipulative date who pretends to be single, even though they are married, is clearly unethical and deceitful. So are job applicants who lie about their academic records to get hired. In fact, it is almost impossible to imagine how you could communicate effectively without making decisions about which front to present in one situation or another. It would be ludicrous for you to act the same way with strangers as you do with close friends, and nobody would show the same face to a 2-year-old as to an adult. Each of us has a repertoire of faces—a cast of characters—and part of being a competent communicator is choosing the best role for the situation.

Compare the identity you construct when interacting with older family members e. How do they differ? What other identities do you construct for different relationships and roles you play? Rachel Leonard had it made. Well, to be more accurate, virtual Rachel had all of those things. And the beautiful scenery? At the same time, she craved the genuine approval of people who understood and accepted her as she was. Concerns such as these are central to the communication choices people make. Here we consider the impact of social media in managing that delicate balance.

Social media can boost self-esteem. Research with adults 35 and younger suggests that text-based interactions—such as through emails, texts, and tweets—often contribute to selfesteem more than do in-person and telephone conversations. The reasons are twofold. People tend to strategically post photos that make them appear attractive and socially engaged with others. College students who accept their own strengths and weaknesses are more likely to show their true selves on social media. Consequently, they enjoy the security of knowing that others like them for who they really are, imperfections and all.

People who feel good about themselves are more likely than others to believe and enjoy compliments. For example, individuals with healthy self-esteem who are the targets of cyberbullying are more likely than those with low self-esteem to tell others about the bullying and to see bullies as immature and eager to prove their own status. It does suggest, however, that being silent or self-critical can make unkind comments feel even worse. People pay more attention to negative impressions than to positive ones. When people do perceive positive qualities, they tend to overgeneralize. Consider people who know you best. How do they enhance your self-esteem? Do they ever challenge it? If so, how? How might your opinion differ if someone takes your parking space? If you knew that the child pictured here is biologically more male or more female, would it affect your opinion or your behavior toward the child?

Compare the notion of a gender continuum with a gender matrix. Which are you best at? Which worst? What aspect of your desired social identity was threatened by the episode? How did you respond to save face as much as possible? If you have a social media presence, does it mostly show you in a genuine way, imperfections and all, or in a way that makes you look as good as possible? What do you think would happen if your social media identity changed? What communication factors shape our cultural identities? Age and Generation How do communication patterns differ between different age groups?

Values and Norms How do cultures differ? What factors contribute to and help reduce prejudice? Culture Shock What can we expect while adapting to new cultures? Cultures may differ even within the same family, neighborhood, or organization. You embody different cultural assumptions throughout the day as you shift between the various roles you play. While growing up in India, Priya was taught not to smile or make eye contact with strangers, since those actions might be construed as a sexual invitation.

I gave an awkward smile and stayed silent. Priya realized that the man mistakenly thought she was Deaf. Looking back, although she never summoned the courage to speak to the man, Priya says that she appreciated his friendly manner. Social scientists use the term salience to describe how much weight we attach to cultural characteristics in a particular situation. In-Group and Out-Group Partly because of cultural membership, we identify more closely with some people than with others.

At home, your family members may feel in-group to you, but at a rock concert, you may feel that your friends are more in-group than your family members are. Coculture There are sometimes greater differences within cultures than between them. You might discover more in common with a traveler raised on another continent whom you meet in a Kathmandu hostel than you would with someone from across town. Nonetheless, cultural norms and values can play a powerful role in shaping how we communicate, both within our in-groups and with people from different backgrounds. Social scientists use the term coculture to describe the perception of membership in a group that is part of an encompassing culture.

For example, you may feel like part of an overarching American culture but also feel membership in youth culture, a Hispanic community, a religious or political group, or many other cocultures. On the following pages, we consider the implications of intercultural communication—interacting with people from a variety of cultures and cocultures. Because individuals are members of many cocultural groups simultaneously, their identity arises from a complex interplay of cultural expectations. Here we explore some of the factors at play. For one thing, your experience of navigating in a wheelchair is likely to be inherently different from that of someone with similar physiology who grew up in different cultural environments.

For another, the complex factors that comprise your identity cannot be easily named or tallied. It proposes that each person experiences life at the intersection of multiple factors, whose interplay gives rise to a unique perspective and collection of experiences all their own. Instead, identity is shaped by the interplay of many elements simultaneously. Race and Ethnicity Race is a social construct originally created to explain biological differences among people whose ancestors originated in different regions of the world—Africa, Asia, Europe, and so on. Consequently, race is not a reliable indicator of individual differences. For example, people who identify as Hispanic may look very different from one another but experience a sense of shared identity. Regional Differences Researchers in one experiment asked human resource professionals to rate the intelligence, initiative, and personality of job applicants after listening to a brief recording of their voices.

The speakers with recognizable regional accents—from the southern United States or New Jersey, for example—were tagged for lower level jobs, whereas those with less pronounced speech styles were recommended for higher level jobs that involved more public contact. Individual differences are far too great for that. But seen overall, there are regional cultures. That is, they are more likely than residents of other regions to be extroverted, considerate, traditional, and dutiful. They are inclined to value new ideas, innovation, and individualism. Masculine and feminine are but two adjectives in a broad constellation of gender-related qualities. It is now commonly accepted that gender identity may change over time and is not strictly tied to physical features.

On average, 1 in 5 hate crimes in the United States targets people on the basis of their sexual orientation or gender identity. Young children have been bullied at schools, others told to go back home and social media has become at times a lot of the time an ugly place to be on. In less extreme but still profound ways, religion may shape how and with whom people communicate. Religious teens who respect the viewpoints of multiple religions typically date more frequently than their nonreligious peers.

Studies show that, if they communicate openly and respectfully about matters of faith, they are just as likely as other couples to stay together. Individuals living in the United States typically identify as belonging to the working class hourly wage earners , middle class, or upper class, and say they feel a sense of solidarity with those in the same social stratum. They tend to feel that they are united both by common challenges and by their commitment to hard, physical work.

Many such students alter their communication patterns dramatically between these two worlds, censoring their speech with classmates and professors to avoid calling attention to their status, and with family members to avoid threatening and alienating them. Conservatives like to have fun. Liberals and Conservatives like to have fun with each other. Conventional wisdom advises people to steer conversations away from politics and religion, recognizing the sensitive nature of talking about deeply held beliefs. Perhaps for that reason, many people use electronic means to express their views. In the United States, nearly 2 out of 3 people who use social media have posted messages encouraging others to join a political or social cause. Social media bots short for robots are automated systems that generate and distribute social media posts.

Social media trolls are individuals whose principal goal is to disrupt public discourse by posting false claims and prejudiced remarks, usually behind a mask of anonymity. All others think they will stay the same or worsen. Deaf culture is a good example: The shared experiences of deafness can create strong bonds. Most notably, distinct languages build a shared worldview and solidarity. There are Deaf schools, Deaf competitions e.

As a general rule, check to see if multiple sources with different perspectives are reporting the same information. Resist the urge to post messages that are designed to anger or belittle others. Be open minded about different opinions. Resist the temptation to block responsible messages that differ from your own. Imagine how odd it would seem if an 8-year-old or a senior citizen started talking, dressing, or otherwise acting like a 20year-old. We tend to think of getting older as a purely biological process. Ideas about aging change over time. At some points in history, older adults have been regarded as wise, accomplished, and even magical.

On balance, people over age 40 are twice as likely as younger people to be depicted in the media as unattractive, bored, and in declining health. Despite negative stereotypes, the data present a different story. Studies show that, overall, individuals in their 60s are just as happy as those in their 20s. People who believe older adults have trouble communicating are less likely to interact with them. Even when these speech styles are well intentioned, they can have harmful effects. Older adults who are treated as incapable tend to perceive themselves to be older and less capable than their peers.

Teens and young adults often experience intense pressure to establish their identity and prove themselves. Older adults are typically more concerned with maintaining their own privacy and that of people they know. To Generation X born between and and Baby Boomer born between and managers, it may seem like a burden to give that much guidance and feedback. Scholars suggest the following strategies for moving toward a more mindful, competent style of intercultural communication 1. Seek out cultural information. There are two main ways to learn about cultures—passive and active. Passive observation involves noticing how members of a culture behave and applying these insights.

Confess your ignorance. Spend time with people from different backgrounds. Meiga , who moved to the United States after growing up in Venezuela and Paris, says she feels different interacting with American friends more outgoing than with Hispanic friends more emotionally expressive or French friends more formal. Her husband Zac loves that she embodies all of these roles.

However, she and her now-husband Hussam connected right away. We understood each other. We are all just people, with differences and similarities, strengths and weaknesses, habits and customs. Here is a look at six patterns that help distinguish cultures around the world. This cultural difference can lead to misunderstandings in the classroom and on job interviews. In one study, Chinese and American players were paired together in a game that required them to take the perspective of their partners. By contrast, members of high-context cultures rely heavily on subtle, often nonverbal cues— such as behavior, history of the relationship, and general social rules—to maintain social harmony.

Mainstream cultures in the United States, Canada, northern Europe, and Israel fall toward the low-context end of the scale. Partly because of these differences, American managers tend to be less attentive listeners than managers in more high-context cultures, who are more likely to focus on the speaker and to avoid distractions. But Americans may point out directly that someone has been eating their food. But the American—who may expect his friend to say outright if he is upset—may miss the point. To members of high-context cultures, communicators with a low-context style can appear inattentive, overly talkative, redundant, and lacking in subtlety.

On the other hand, to people from low-context backgrounds, high-context communicators often seem evasive or even dishonest. Uncertainty Avoidance Uncertainty may be universal, but cultures have different ways of coping with unpredictable conditions. In countries that avoid uncertainty, people who are different or who express ideas that challenge the status quo are often considered dangerous, and intolerance is high. Power Distance Power distance refers to the gap between social groups with substantial power and resources and those with less. Cultures with low power distance believe in minimizing the difference between various social classes. They tend to subscribe to the egalitarian belief that one person is as good as another regardless of their station in life—rich, poor, educated, or uneducated.

Austria, Denmark, Israel, and New Zealand are some of the most egalitarian countries. Most cultures in the United States and Canada value equality, even if that ideal is not always perfectly enacted. At the other end of the spectrum are countries with a high degree of power distance, such as the Philippines, Mexico, Venezuela, India, Japan, and Singapore.

The oldest or highest ranking person receives the deepest bows from others, the best seat, the most deferential treatment, and so on. Indeed, treating a high-status person the same as everyone else would seem rude. Talk and Silence Beliefs about the very value of talk differ from one culture to another. Silence has a negative value in these cultures. It is likely to be interpreted as lack of interest, unwillingness to communicate, hostility, anxiety, shyness, or a sign of interpersonal incompatibility.

On the other hand, silence is valued in Asian cultures. To Asians, a talkative person is often considered a show-off or a fake. Members of some Native American communities also honor silence. For example, traditional members of western Apache tribes maintain silence when others lose their temper to avoid making the situation worse. The idea is that words are often unnecessary in periods of grief, and it is comforting to have loved ones present without the pressure to maintain conversations with them. Only when they recognize the dissimilarities in their cultural expectations can they adapt to one another, or at least understand and respect their differences.

Competition and Cooperation Cultures are a bit like people in that they may be regarded as competitive, cooperative, or somewhere in the middle. Competitive cultures—including those in Japan, Italy, Nigeria, and Great Britain—embody qualities such as independence, competitiveness, and assertiveness. Gender roles are less differentiated in cooperative cultures—which emphasize equality, relationships, cooperation, and consensus building. This short-term gain may result in damaged relationships, however, if people on the other side feel disrespected or treated unfairly. Some countries, such as Taiwan, fall near the midpoint on the scale since they place relatively equal value on cooperative and competitive qualities.

In fact, there is speculation that the world is becoming more balanced overall. Then test your cultural knowledge with the quiz on the next page. In what ways is your identity shaped by who you are as an individual? In what ways is it shaped by the groups to which you belong e. Do you identify more with the cultural value of individualism or collectivism? If the vice president of the company where you work initiates a conversation with you in the hallway, in what ways do you demonstrate that there is power distance between you e. In general, do you mostly embody a high power distance or a belief that all people are equal, regardless of their rank or status?

Imagine that you are hanging out with friends when a lull occurs in the conversation. How does your comfort or discomfort with silence affect the way you communicate? Does this vary by relationship? Answer the questions below to test your knowledge about what is culturally appropriate around the world. Japanese visitors are in town. What should you know? It is not customary to wrap gifts in Japan. You are interacting with a person who is Deaf and who uses an interpreter. What should you do? Address your comments to the interpreter, then look at the Deaf person to see how they react. Maintain eye contact with the Deaf person rather than the interpreter.

Offer to communicate in written form so the interpreter will be unnecessary. Speak very slowly and exaggerate the movements your mouth makes. While traveling in China, you should be aware of which rule of dining etiquette? Cloth napkins are just for show there. Use a paper napkin to wipe your mouth. Avoid sticking your chopsticks upright in your food when you are not using them. They favor greetings that involve shaking hands and kissing on each cheek. Men tend to be touch avoidant and to stand at least 3 feet from one another during conversations d.

They consider the left hand unsanitary and hold eating utensils only with their right hands. The correct answer is c. Question 2 Treat Deaf people with the same courtesy as anyone else—maintain eye contact and focus on them. Question 3 Cultures vary in terms of whether it is rude to eat everything or rude not to. In China, leaving a little food on your plate lets your hosts know they have provided plentifully for you. Question 4 Members of Arab cultures may shake hands and kiss on each cheek, but usually only with people they already know well. A handshake is more appropriate for an introductory business meeting. Men tend to speak at close distances far closer than 3 feet unless the conversation involves a woman, in which case it is rude to touch or crowd her.

The correct answer is d. One of the greatest barriers to intercultural communication is the sense that everyone should think and act the same way. We talked in Chapter 2 about perceptual tendencies to judge ourselves and members of our in-group more favorably than we do out-group members. Where intercultural communication in concerned, perceptual biases can lead to intolerance and unfair treatment, but there is hope. Here are four conclusions from the research.

We tend to think our culture is the best. An ethnocentric person thinks —either privately or openly—that anyone who does not belong to their in-group is somehow strange, wrong, or even inferior. Ethnocentrism leads to an attitude of prejudice—an unfairly biased and intolerant attitude toward others who belong to an out-group. Stereotypical prejudices include the obvious exaggerations that all women are emotional, all men are sex-crazed and insensitive, all older people are out of touch with reality, and all immigrants are untrustworthy. Preconceived attitudes toward others can lead people to engage in unfair discrimination—depriving people of opportunities or equal treatment based on prejudice, stereotypes, or irrelevant factors such as appearance, age, or race.

Two decades of research has revealed that many people harbor stereotypes without consciously thinking about them. Look for ways to appreciate others beyond obvious cues such as race, gender, age, ability, and sexual orientation. This stage—which typically feels like a crisis—has acquired the labels culture shock or adjustment shock. It means they have the potential to adapt and grow. With patience, the sense of crisis may begin to wane, and once again, the person may feel energetic and enthusiastic to learn more.

Instead, people tend to take two steps forward and one step back, and to repeat that pattern many times. Gradually, she found the courage to initiate conversations, and she discovered that her classmates were friendly and receptive. People with whom we identify are considered in-group and others are out-group. A coculture is a group that is part of an overarching, encompassing culture. Judgments can lead to unfair discrimination. Mindful thinking can help reduce bias. In what situations do you feel like an in-group member? When do people treat you like an outgroup member? How do you feel in each of these situations? List 5 to 10 of your social identities e.

From the perspective of intersectionality, explain how the interface of these identities e. In what ways does society stereotype people your age? Are these assumptions mostly true or not? How do they affect the way people communicate with you? How might the students pictured above communicate in this meeting if they embody a collectivist perspective? High reliance on context? Extreme power distance? High tolerance for silence? Low tolerance for ambiguity? Speculate about how someone inclined toward ethnocentrism, prejudice, and stereotypical assumptions might regard the woman pictured above. What means might they use to get to know her as a unique individual instead?

Think of a time when you felt homesick or out of place perhaps at a new job or school. What was most useful to you in terms of adapting to the culture? In what ways does language shape our attitudes? Misunderstandings How can we avoid vague and confusing language? And why does the difference matter? How can we use language responsibly? Gender and Language Do men and women use language differently? Language is a collection of symbols governed by rules and used to convey messages between people. Here are some qualities that help explain why sharing understandings through language can be challenging. Language is symbolic. Not all linguistic symbols are spoken or written words.

Although symbols are arbitrary, they are highly potent. How you react to a stranger depends partly on the symbols you use to categorize that person: rich or poor , religious or not , attractive or unattractive , and so on. Others favor a new word entirely—such as ze or e—in place of he and she. Some universities have begun allowing individuals to identify the pronouns they want to be used on student records and applications.

Ask a dozen people what the same symbol means, and you may get 12 different answers. The same goes for feminism, Republicans, rock music, and other symbols. Part of the person-centered nature of language involves the difference between denotative and connotative meanings. There is usually little confusion about the denotative meaning of words such as chair and desk. But consider terms such as survivor and victim. In reference to violent assaults, these terms have nearly synonymous denotative meanings: one who has been harmed. But for many people, survivor connotes someone who manages to thrive despite adversity, and victim suggests a sense of helplessness. Problems arise when people mistakenly assume that others use words in the same way they do.

It turns out that taking English classes in school is just a start. Keeping up to date with vocabulary and grammar is a lifelong process. Here are four types of rules that provide structure for language. Can you correctly say comptroller, miniature, sherbet, and assuage? If you pronounced them as con-troller, min-ee-a-chore, sher-bit, and ess-wage, give yourself top marks in phonology. Mispronounced words can change the meaning of a sentence and leave you feeling foolish.

Technology is spawning versions of English with their own syntactic rules. They make it possible for us to agree that bikes are for riding and books are for reading. Since this federal system's constitution was founded on the same principles as that of the United Kingdom , each of the provinces was guaranteed sovereign authority in the sphere of its legislative powers. The objective of clerico-nationalists was promoting the values of traditional society: family, the French language, the Catholic Church and rural life.

Also during this time period, events such as the North-West Rebellion , the Manitoba Schools Question and Ontario's Regulation 17 turned the promotion and defence of the rights of French Canadians into an important concern. In , liberal and conservative MPs formed the Parti national out of anger with the previous government for not having interceded in the execution of Louis Riel. It required the use of French alongside English on tickets, documents, bills and contracts issued by transportation and public utility companies. At this time, companies rarely recognized the majority language of Quebec. When the First World War broke out, Canada was automatically involved and many English Canadians voluntarily enlisted. However, because they did not feel the same connection to the British Empire and there was no direct threat to Canada, French Canadians saw no reason to fight.

A few did enlist in the 22nd Battalion, precursor to the Royal 22e Regiment. By late , the number of casualties were beginning to cause reinforcement problems. After enormous difficulty in the federal government, because virtually every French-speaking MP opposed conscription while almost all the English-speaking MPs supported it, the Military Service Act became law on August 29, However, the Quebec government did not recognize the ruling of this council, resulting in a boundary dispute which remains ongoing. The Statute of Westminster of was enacted and it confirmed the autonomy of the Dominions — including Canada and its provinces — from the United Kingdom, as well as their free association in the Commonwealth.

Between and the unemployment rate increased from 7. French Canadians remained opposed to conscription during the Second World War. When Canada declared war in September , the federal government pledged not to conscript soldiers for overseas service. As the war went on, more and more English Canadians voiced support for conscription, despite firm opposition from French Canada. Following a poll that showed Protests exploded and the Bloc Populaire emerged to fight conscription. In the wake of the conscription crisis, Maurice Duplessis of the Union Nationale ascended to power and implemented a set of conservative policies known as the Grande Noirceur. He focused on defending provincial autonomy , Quebec's Catholic and francophone heritage, and laissez-faire liberalism instead of the emerging welfare state.

The more French Canadian society was shaken by social change, the more the traditional elites — grouped around clerical circles and Duplessis — reflexively hardened their conservative and French-Canadian nationalism. The Quiet Revolution was a period of intense modernization, secularization and social reform where, in a collective awakening, French Canadians clearly expressed their concern and dissatisfaction with their inferior socioeconomic position and the cultural assimilation of francophone minorities in the English-majority provinces.

This government made many reforms in the fields of social policy, education, health and economic development. In , the government of Quebec nationalized its electricity and dismantled the financial syndicates of Saint Jacques Street. In , the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism [80] wrote a preliminary report underlining Quebec's distinct character, and promoted open federalism, a political attitude guaranteeing Quebec to a minimum amount of consideration. Pearson adopted a policy of open federalism. This declaration had a profound effect on Quebec by bolstering the burgeoning modern Quebec sovereignty movement and resulting in a political crisis between France and Canada. Following this, various civilian groups developed, sometimes confronting public authority, for example in the October Crisis of This breakdown greatly affected Quebec society's evolution.

In , class conflicts and changes in mentalities intensified. Between and , the Estates General of French Canada confirmed the state of Quebec to be the nation's fundamental political milieu and for it to have the right to self-determination. On the night of November 4, , the Kitchen Accord took place. Delegations from the other nine provinces and the federal government reached a compromise in the absence of the Quebec delegation, which had left for the night. Between and , the Quebec government's attitude changed to prioritize reforming the federation. This consultation ended in failure for sovereignists, though the outcome was very close: In , following the Supreme Court of Canada 's decision on the Reference Re Secession of Quebec , the Parliaments of Canada and Quebec defined the legal frameworks within which their respective governments would act in another referendum.

As the NDP's logo is orange, this was called the "orange wave". The Province of Quebec from to Lower Canada from to Patriots' War in Quebec today. Quebec in blue has a border dispute with Labrador in red. Located in the eastern part of Canada, Quebec occupies a territory nearly three times the size of France or Texas. Most of Quebec is very sparsely populated. Lawrence Lowlands. The combination of rich soils and Quebec's relatively warm climate makes this valley the most prolific agricultural area of Quebec. The rural part of the landscape is divided into narrow rectangular tracts of land that extend from the river and date back to the seigneurial system. Quebec's topography is very different from one region to another due to the varying composition of the ground, the climate, and the proximity to water.

While low and medium altitude peaks extend from western Quebec to the far north, high altitudes mountains emerge in the Capitale-Nationale region to the extreme east. Quebec's highest point at 1, metres 5, ft is Mont d'Iberville, known in English as Mount Caubvick. The Appalachian region has a narrow strip of ancient mountains along the southeastern border of Quebec. The largest inland body of water is the Caniapiscau Reservoir ; Lake Mistassini is the largest natural lake.

Protected areas can be classified into about twenty different legal designations ex. In general, the climate of Quebec is cold and humid, with variations determined by latitude, maritime and elevation influences. Quebec is divided into four climatic zones: arctic, subarctic, humid continental and East maritime. Precipitation is also somewhat less than farther south, except at some of the higher elevations. The all-time record high temperature was The winter of was the warmest and driest recorded in more than 60 years. Given the geology of the province and its different climates, there are a number of large areas of vegetation in Quebec. These areas, listed in order from the northernmost to the southernmost are: the tundra , the taiga , the Canadian boreal forest coniferous , mixed forest and deciduous forest.

Further south, the climate is conducive to the growth of the Canadian boreal forest , bounded on the north by the taiga. Not as arid as the tundra, the taiga is associated with the subarctic regions of the Canadian Shield [] and is characterized by a greater number of both plant and animal species. Given a warmer climate, the diversity of organisms is also higher: there are about plant species and vertebrate species. The mixed forest is a transition zone between the Canadian boreal forest and deciduous forest. This area contains a diversity of plant and vertebrates species, despite relatively cool temperatures.

The ecozone mixed forest is characteristic of the Laurentians , the Appalachians and the eastern lowland forests. Because of its climate, this area has the greatest diversity of species, including more than vascular plants and vertebrates. The total forest area of Quebec is estimated at , km 2 , sq mi. The deciduous forest of the Great Lakes—St. Lawrence Lowlands is mostly composed of deciduous species such as the sugar maple , the red maple , the white ash , the American beech , the butternut white walnut , the American elm , the basswood , the bitternut hickory and the northern red oak as well as some conifers such as the eastern white pine and the northern whitecedar. The distribution areas of the paper birch , the trembling aspen and the mountain ash cover more than half of Quebec's territory.

Biodiversity of the estuary and gulf of Saint Lawrence River [] includes aquatic mammal wildlife, such as the blue whale , the beluga , the minke whale and the harp seal earless seal. The Nordic marine animals include the walrus and the narwhal. Among the birds commonly seen in the southern part of Quebec are the American robin , the house sparrow , the red-winged blackbird , the mallard , the common grackle , the blue jay , the American crow , the black-capped chickadee , some warblers and swallows , the starling and the rock pigeon.

Sea and semi-aquatic birds seen in Quebec are mostly the Canada goose , the double-crested cormorant , the northern gannet , the European herring gull , the great blue heron , the sandhill crane , the Atlantic puffin and the common loon. The large land wildlife includes the white-tailed deer , the moose , the muskox , the caribou reindeer , the American black bear and the polar bear.

The medium-sized land wildlife includes the cougar , the coyote , the eastern wolf , the bobcat , the Arctic fox , the fox, etc. The small animals seen most commonly include the eastern grey squirrel , the snowshoe hare , the groundhog , the skunk , the raccoon , the chipmunk and the Canadian beaver. Quebec is founded on the Westminster system , and is both a liberal democracy and a constitutional monarchy with parliamentary regime.

The lieutenant governor represents the Queen of Canada and acts as the province's head of state. At the level of the Senate of Canada , Quebec is represented by 24 senators, which are appointed on the advice of the prime minister of Canada. The Quebec State holds administrative and police authority in the areas of exclusive jurisdiction. There are 22 official political parties in Quebec. Quebec's territory is divided into 17 administrative regions as follows: [] []. While Quebec's Ministry of International Relations coordinates international policy, its Quebec's general delegations are the main interlocutors in foreign countries.

Under the rule of law , any agreement made abroad, by the federal or Quebecois government, is only applicable in domestic politics by the consent of popular sovereignty. Quebec is the only Canadian province that has set up a ministry to exclusively embody the state's powers for international relations. Since , Quebec has adopted a green plan to meet the objectives of the Kyoto Protocol regarding climate change. Agriculture in Quebec has been subject to agricultural zoning regulations since Quebec's forests [ fr ] are essentially public property. The calculation of annual cutting possibilities is the responsibility of the Bureau du forestier en chef.

Immigration to Quebec is supported by integration programs favouring French, as it is the common language, as well as the principles of pluralism and interculturalism. The centres de la petite enfance [ fr ] CPEs; 'centres for young children' are institutions that link family policies to education. Part of the reason for this is the relative democratization of higher education implemented during the Quiet Revolution, when the Quebec government froze tuition fees to a relatively low level and created CEGEPs.

When Jean Charest's government decided in to sharply increase university fees, students protests erupted. Quebec has a historied relationship with France as it was a part of the French Empire and both regions share a language. Quebec and the UK currently share the same head of state. Quebec has a network of 32 offices in 18 countries. These offices serve the purpose of representing Quebec in the country in which they are situated and are overseen by Quebec's Ministry of International Relations. Quebec, like other Canadian provinces, also maintains representatives in some Canadian embassies and consulates general.

In addition, there are the equivalent of honorary consuls , titled antennes , in Berlin , Philadelphia , Qingdao , Seoul , and Silicon Valley. Quebec law is the shared responsibility of the federal and provincial government. The federal government is responsible for criminal law , foreign affairs and laws relating to the regulation of Canadian commerce, interprovincial transportion, and telecommunications. Quebec law is influenced by two judicial traditions civil law and common law and four classic sources of law legislation , case law , doctrine and customary law.

The Parliament of Canada also influences Quebec private law, in particular through its power over banks, bankruptcy, marriage, divorce and maritime law. Quebec administrative law governs relations between individuals and the Quebec public administration. Quebec also has some limited jurisdiction over criminal law. Finally, Quebec, like the federal government, has tax law power. This is the case, for example, with human rights and freedoms which are governed by the Quebec Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms , a Charter which applies to both government and citizens. English is not an official language in Quebec law. The books and records of the National Assembly must also be kept in both languages. Although Quebec is a civil law jurisdiction, it does not follow the pattern of other civil law systems which have court systems divided by subject matter.

Instead, the court system follows the English model of unitary courts of general jurisidiction. The provincial courts have jurisdiction to decide matters under provincial law as well as federal law , including civil , criminal and constitutional matters. The Quebec courts are organized in a pyramid. At the bottom, there are the municipal courts , the Professions Tribunal, the Human Rights Tribunal, and administrative tribunals. Decisions of those bodies can be reviewed by the two trial courts, the Court of Quebec the Superior Court of Quebec. The Court of Quebec is the main criminal trial court, and also a court for small civil claims.

The Superior Court is a trial court of general jurisdiction, in both criminal and civil matters. The decisions of those courts can be appealed to the Quebec Court of Appeal. Finally, if the case is of great importance, it may be appealed to the Supreme Court of Canada. The Court of Appeal serves two purposes. First, it is the general court of appeal for all legal issues from the lower courts. It hears appeals from the trial decisions of the Superior Court and the Quebec Court. It also can hear appeals from decisions rendered by those two courts on appeals or judicial review matters relating to the municipal courts and administrative tribunals.

The Court of Appeal renders more than 1, judgments per year. For offences against provincial or federal laws in Quebec including the Criminal Code , the Director of Criminal and Penal Prosecutions [ fr ] is responsible for prosecuting offenders in court through Crown attorneys. The Department of Justice of Canada also has the power to prosecute offenders, but only for offences against specific federal laws ex. Quebec is responsible for operating the prison system for sentences of less than two years, and the federal government operates penitentiaries for sentences of two years or more.

In the census , Quebec had a population of 8,,, a 3. With a land area of 1,, The most populated cities in Quebec are Montreal 1,, , Quebec City , , Laval , , and Gatineau , In , Quebec's median age was As of , In , Quebec witnessed an increase in the number of births compared to the year before 84, vs 83, and had a replacement rate of about 1. Quebec in registered the highest rate of population growth since , with an increase of , people, mostly because of the arrival of a high number of non-permanent residents.

As of , most international immigrants come from China, India or France. Most residents, particularly couples, are property owners. The census counted a total Indigenous population of , 2. In , the Mohawk reserves of Kahnawake and Doncaster 17 along with the Indian settlement of Kanesatake and Lac-Rapide , a reserve of the Algonquins of Barriere Lake , were not counted. Most visible minorities in Quebec live in or near Montreal. An additional 5. Its construction began in , when it was known under the name Notre-Dame-de-la-Paix , and it was finished in This basilica welcomes millions of visitors each year. Saint Joseph's Oratory is the largest place of worship in the world dedicated to Saint Joseph.

Another important place of worship in Quebec is the Anglican Holy Trinity Cathedral, which was erected between and It was the first Anglican cathedral built outside the British Isles. Quebec differs from other Canadian provinces in that French is the only official and preponderant language, while English predominates in the rest of Canada. Through its linguistic recommendations, the GDT fights against the invasion of Frenglish into the French language.

Canada is estimated to be home to between 32 and 36 regional French accents, [] [] 17 of which can be found in Quebec. The Gendron Commission report of established the foundations for the white book of the government of Quebec' linguistic policy. Dependent on commissions of inquiry , this policy statement is also accompanied the Charter of the French language "Bill " since As French's demographic weight continues to decline, Quebec faces the threat of assimilation. In addition, in , roughly 50, people 0. In the census, 50, people in Quebec said they knew at least one Indigenous language. As of the census , the most common immigrant languages are Arabic 2. In , the Indigenous population of Quebec numbered , The ten First Nations ethnic groups in Quebec are linked to two linguistic groups.

The Algonquian family is made up of eight ethnic groups: the Abenaki , the Algonquin , the Attikamek , the Cree , the Wolastoqiyik , the Mi'kmaq , the Innu and the Naskapis. These last two formed, until , a single ethnic group: the Innu. The Iroquoian family is made up of the Huron-Wendat and the Mohawks. Indigenous rights were enunciated in the Indian Act and adopted at the end of the 19th century. This act confines First Nations within the reserves created for them. The Indian Act is still in effect today. Because this extension was enacted without the participation of the federal government , the extended Indigenous rights only exist in Quebec.

In , the Naskapis joined the agreement when the Northeastern Quebec Agreement was signed. Quebec houses an Acadian community spread out across several regions. An Acadian community in Quebec can be called a "Cadie" or "Petite Cadie", and some cities and villages use the demonym "Cadien". Quebec has an advanced , market-based , and open economy. The economy of Quebec is ranked the 37th largest economy in the world just behind Greece and 28th for the GDP per capita. The provincial debt-to-GDP ratio peaked at Like most industrialized countries , the economy of Quebec is based mainly on the services sector.

Quebec's economy has traditionally been fuelled by abundant natural resources and a well-developed infrastructure, but has undergone significant change over the past decade. The knowledge sector represents about Quebec is a major player in several industries including aerospace , information technologies and software , and multimedia. This vast sector encompasses approximately 7, businesses and employs more than , people. There are currently approximately telecommunications companies established in the province, such as Motorola and Ericsson. The mining industry accounted for 6.

It is also the main, and in some circumstances only, source of manufacturing activity in more than municipalities in the province. The forest industry has slowed in recent years because of the softwood lumber dispute. The agri-food industry plays an important role in the economy of Quebec, with meat and dairy products being the two main sectors. This industry generated , jobs in agriculture, fisheries, manufacturing of food, beverages and tobacco and food distribution. The province has seen its exports increase significantly. NAFTA is especially advantageous as it gives Quebec, among other things, access to a market of million consumers within a radius of 1, kilometers.

These international exchanges contribute to the strength of the Quebec economy, most particularly in terms of employment. Of this total, The breakdown by destination of international merchandise exports is: United States Quebec's main economic partner remains the rest of Canada. The breakdown by origin of international merchandise imports is as follows: United States The abundance of natural resources gives Quebec an advantageous position on the world market. Quebec stands out particularly in the mining sector, ranking among the top ten areas to do business in mining. Many metallic minerals are exploited, the principals are gold, iron, copper and zinc.

Many other substances are extracted including titanium , asbestos , silver, magnesium , nickel and many other metals and industrial minerals. Quebec stands out for its use of renewable energy. The government estimates that its targets should reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 16 megatonnes of CO2 equivalent by Quebec produces most of Canada's hydroelectricity and is the second biggest hydroelectricity producer in the world [] Because of this, Quebec has been described as a potential Clean energy superpower. As Quebec has few significant deposits of fossil fuels , [] all hydrocarbons are imported.

Refiners' sourcing strategies have varied over time and have depended on market conditions. In the s, Quebec purchased much of its oil from the North Sea. Since , it now consumes almost exclusively the crude produced in western Canada and the United States. The tourism industry is a major economic pillar in Quebec. The industry provides employment to over , people. It is estimated that, in , Quebec welcomed Of these, Approximately 1. The government hoped to create a strong culture of innovation in Quebec for the next decades and to create a sustainable economy. Quebec is considered one of world leaders in fundamental scientific research , having produced ten Nobel laureates in either physics, chemistry, or medicine. The province is one of the world leaders in the field of space science and contributed to important discoveries in this field.

HR is the first direct observation of an exoplanet in history. Quebec ranks among the world leaders in the field of life science. Quebec has more than biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies which together employ more than 25, people and 10, highly qualified researchers. The education system of Quebec, administered by the government of Quebec's Ministry of Education and Higher Education , differs from those of other Canadian provinces. The province has five levels of education: first preschool, then primary school, then secondary school [ fr ] ; then CEGEP see College education in Quebec ; and finally university education [ fr ].

Attached to these levels are the options to also attend professional development opportunities, classes for adults , and continuing education. For every level of teaching, there exists a public network and private network: the public network is financed by taxes while the private options must be paid for by the student. In , school boards were replaced by school service centres.

All universities in Quebec exist by virtue of laws adopted by the National Assembly of Quebec in during the Quiet Revolution. Their financing mostly comes from public taxes, but the laws under which they operate grants them more autonomy than other levels of education. In addition, Quebec has almost 12, bridges, tunnels, retaining walls, culverts and other structures [] such as the Quebec Bridge , the Laviolette Bridge and the Louis-Hippolyte Lafontaine Bridge—Tunnel. In the waters of the Saint Lawrence there are eight deep-water ports for the transhipment of goods. In , cargo and 9. Concerning rail transport, Quebec has 6, km 4, mi of railways [] integrated in the large North American network. Quebec's air network includes 43 airports that offer scheduled services on a daily basis.

Various other transport networks crisscross the province of Quebec, including hiking trails, snowmobile trails and bike paths. The Green Road is the largest at nearly 4, km 2, mi in length. Health and social services are part of the same administration. The Quebec health system is also public, which means that the state acts as the main insurer and administrator, that funding is provided by general taxation, and that patients have access to care regardless of their income level. They ensure the distribution of different services on the territories they are assigned to. Quebec has developed its own unique culture from its historic New France roots. Its culture also symbolizes a distinct perspective: being a French-speaking nation surrounded by a bigger English-speaking culture.

A number of governmental and non-government organizations support cultural activity in Quebec. It supports creation, innovation, production, and international exhibits for all cultural fields of Quebec. Traditional music is imbued with many dances, such as the jig , the quadrille , the reel and line dancing. Traditional instruments include harmonica, fiddle , spoons , jaw harp and accordion. The First Nations and the Inuit of Quebec also have their own traditional music.

Several circus troupes were created in recent decades, the most important being the Cirque du Soleil. Comedy is a vast cultural sector. Quebec has created and is home to several different comedy festivals, including the Just for Laughs festival in Montreal, as well as the Grand Rire festivals of Quebec, Gatineau and Sherbrooke. Quebec's French-speaking populace has the second largest body of folktales in Canada the first being First Nations. The Devil , for instance, appears often as either a person, an animal or monster, or indirectly through Demonic acts. From New France, Quebec literature was first developed in the travel accounts of explorers. The regional novel from Quebec is called Terroir novel and is a literary tradition [] specific to the province.

The art of Quebec has developed around the specific characteristics of its landscapes and cultural, historical, social and political representations. Canadien-style houses and barns were developed by the first settlers of New France along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River. These buildings are rectangular one-storey structures with an extremely tall and steep roof, sometimes almost twice as tall as the house below. Canadien-style churches also developed and served as landmarks while traversing rural Quebec. The Association Quebecoise des Loisirs Folkloriques is an organization committed to preserving and disseminating Quebec's folklore heritage.

The traditional Quebecois cuisine descends from 16th-century French cuisine , the fur trade and a history of hunting. Quebec's cuisine has also been influenced by learning from First Nation , by English cuisine and by American cuisine. Catherine's taffy among others. Quebec is the world's biggest maple syrup producer. Other major food products include beer, wine including ice wine and ice cider , and cheese notably Oka cheese. Sports in Quebec constitutes an essential dimension of Quebec culture. Ice hockey remains the national sport.

This sport was played for the first time on March 3, , in Montreal and has been promoted over the years by numerous achievements, including the centenary of the Montreal Canadiens. They won 12 of Canada's 29 medals at the most recent Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang ; they won 12 of the 27 Canadian medals in Sochi ; and 9 of the 26 Canadian medals in Vancouver St-Jean-Baptiste Day is one of Quebec's biggest holidays. On this day, the song " Gens du pays ", by Gilles Vigneault , is often heard. National Patriots' Day , a statutory holiday in Quebec, is also a unique public holiday, which honours the patriotes with displays of the patriote flag , music, public speeches, and ceremonies. Moving Day is a tradition where leases terminate on July 1.

This creates a social phenomenon where everyone seems to be moving out at the same time. Quebecois can also have different ways of celebrating certain holidays. In , the government of Quebec unilaterally ratified its coat of arms to reflect Quebec's political history : French rule gold lily on blue background , followed by British rule lion on red background , followed by Canadian rule maple leaves. The fleur-de-lis , one of Quebec's most common symbols, is an ancient symbol of the French monarchy. Finally, the Great Seal of Quebec is used to authenticate documents issued by the government of Quebec. The earliest immigrants to the Canadian prairies were French Canadians from Quebec.

The northeastern Franco-Ontarians of today, which are primarily concentrated in Timmins , Hearst , Moosonee and Sault Sainte Marie , are the descendants of emigrants from Quebec who worked in the mines of the area. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Province of Canada. This article is about the Canadian province. For the province's capital city, see Quebec City. For the historical province, see Province of Quebec — For other uses, see Quebec disambiguation. Province in Canada. Coat of arms. Je me souviens French : "I remember". Main articles: Timeline of Quebec history and History of Quebec. Main article: British North America. Canada in the 18th century.

Main article: Geography of Quebec. See also: List of rivers of Quebec and List of lakes of Quebec. Middle Arctic Tundra. Low Arctic Tundra. Torngat Mountain Tundra. Eastern Canadian Shield Taiga. Southern Hudson Bay Taiga. Central Canadian Shield Forests. Eastern Canadian Forests. Eastern Great Lakes Lowland Forests. Gulf of St. Lawrence Lowland Forests. Main articles: Government of Quebec and Politics of Quebec. Main article: Administrative divisions of Quebec.

Main articles: Quebec law and Bar of Quebec. Main article: Demographics of Quebec. Main article: Religion in Quebec. Main article: Language demographics of Quebec. Linguistic map of the province of Quebec source: Statistics Canada, census. Data not available. Main article: Indigenous peoples in Quebec. Main article: Economy of Quebec. This section needs to be updated. The reason given is: Economic data is out-of-date, most is from Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. June Main articles: Tourism in Quebec and List of festivals in Quebec. Main article: Culture of Quebec. Main articles: Cinema of Quebec and Television in Quebec.

Main articles: Quebec literature and Folklore of Quebec. Main article: Architecture of Quebec. See also: List of art schools in Quebec. See also: List of museums in Quebec. Main article: Cuisine of Quebec. Main article: Symbols of Quebec. Main article: Quebec diaspora. Statistics Canada. February 8, Archived from the original on February 13, Retrieved September 12, Oxford Guide to Canadian English Usage. Oxford University Press. ISBN Government of Quebec. Archived from the original on May 14, Retrieved November 10, November 9, Archived from the original on September 19, Natural Resources Canada.

Archived from the original on September 18, March 27, In Goddard, Ives ed. Handbook of North American Indians. Smithsonian Institution. Canada: A People's History. Canadian Broadcast Corporation. Septentrion ed. Canada-Quebec — historical summary. ISBN X. Secretariat for Native Affairs. The Canadian encyclopedia. Hurtig Publishers. Histoire de la Nouvelle-France : les vaines tentatives — The Canadian Encyclopedia. Champlain: The Birth of French America.

McGill-Queen's University Press. Retrieved July 10, Dictionnaire biographique du Canada in French. A Political Chronology of the Americas. Psychology Press. UBC Press. Osprey Publishing. McGill-Queen's Press. Government of Canada. August 11, Canada: An Illustrated History. University of Nebraska Press. Encyclopedia of North American Immigration.

Infobase Publishing. Amerique francaise. Histoire du Quebec. Retrieved July 5, Canadian Museum of History. Ohio History Central. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved July 29, Canadian National Battlefields Commission. Archived from the original on July 26, Library and Archives Canada.

Quebec Sovereignty Summary international Edward Kennedy: Duke Ellington, Quebec Sovereignty Summary debt is a Quebec Sovereignty Summary theory which holds that Quebec Sovereignty Summary national debt incurred by a regime for purposes that do not serve the Quebec Sovereignty Summary interests of the nation, such as wars of aggression, should not be Quebec Sovereignty Summary. Archived from the original on September 10, Most visible minorities in Quebec live in or near Montreal.

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